Journal Issue:
Animal Industry Report: Volume 655, Issue 1

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Production of Radiation-Induced Compounds in Irradiated Raw and Cooked Meats
( 2009-01-01) Kwon, Joong-Ho ; Kwon, Youngju ; Ahn, Dong ; Kausar, Tusneem ; Nam, Ki-Chang ; Min, Byong ; Lee, Eun ; Ahn, Dong

The objective of this study was to determine the best irradiation markers in irradiated meat. Raw and cooked beef loins, pork loins and chicken thighs were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy. The amounts of hydrocarbons, 2-alkylcyclobutanones, and sulfur volatiles were determined after 0 and 6 months of frozen storage. Two hydrocarbons (8-heptadecene (C17:1) and 6,9-heptadecadiene (C17:2)) and two 2- alkylcyclobutanones (2-dodecylcyclobutanone (DCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (TCB)) were detected only in irradiated raw and cooked meats. Although pre-cooked irradiated meats produced more hydrocarbons and 2- alkylcyclobutanones than the irradiated cooked ones, the amounts of individual hydrocarbons and 2- alkylcyclobutanones, such as 8-heptadecene, 6,9- heptadecadiene, DCB, and TCB, were sufficient enough to identify whether the meat was irradiated or not. Dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide were detected only in irradiated meats, but dimethyl trisulfide disappeared after 6 months of frozen storage under oxygen permeable packaging conditions. This indicated that only dimethyl disulfide could be used as an irradiation marker for the meat stored in frozen conditions for a long time.

Economic Comparison of Finishing Steers on Grass with Self-Fed By-Products to Finishing Cattle in a Conventional Feedlot
( 2009-01-01) Busby, W. ; Maxwell, Dallas ; Lawrence, John ; Lawrence, John ; Ibarburu, Maro ; Strohbehn, Daryl ; Morrical, Daniel ; Kiesling, Dan

Two hundred forty one steers were finished utilizing a self-feeder on grass or a conventional feedlot facility. The 80 head finished on grass were self-fed either a soyhulls-DDGS-supplement or a corn-DDGS-supplement ration with access to grass from May 7 to harvest on August 26 while the 161 head conventional group was finished in a total confinement deep bedded system with the ration consisting of corn-modified DDGS-supplement-limestone-ground hay. Steers were weighed and individually identified by one of three source groups. April feeder cattle prices during the past 5 years (2004-08) for 700 to 750 lb steers was used to establish an individual value for each steer. Based on previous work, the decision was made to assign the heavier steers to the self-fed on grass group. The self-fed on grass group’s average purchase weight and price was 906 lb and $95.66/cwt ($865.84/hd), respectively, compared to the conventional group’s average weight and price of 824 lb and $101.48/cwt ($833.62/hd), respectively.

The self-fed on grass group was harvested after 131 days on feed with an adjusted final weight of 1,330 lb and average daily gain of 3.24. Conventional group cattle were harvested after 138 days on feed with an adjusted final weight of 1,310 lb and average daily gain of 3.52. Differences in average daily gain were significant. The self-fed on grass group had 12 lb heavier carcasses, but this was not significantly different. Fat cover and yield grades were similar between the two management groups. The self-fed on grass had significantly lower marbling scores than the conventional group; resulting in 47% less Choice carcasses. Feed cost for the self-fed on grass group included feed delivered to the self-feeders, warm up feed charge and pasture charge of $50/acre or $23.13/hd. Feed cost for the conventional group included total ration delivered to the feed bunk and the warm up feed charge. Total feed cost for the self-fed on grass group was $331.82/hd compared to $359.12/hd for the conventional group. The conventional fed group had a higher average daily gain which offset the total feed cost/hd resulting in the conventional fed group having a lower feed cost/cwt of gain, $74.28/cwt compared to $78.89/cwt for the self-fed on grass group. Total cost for the self-fed on grass group was $378.78/hd compared to $430.57/hd for the conventional group resulting in total cost of gains of $89.25/cwt and $90.25/cwt, respectively. The conventional groups profit was -$32.57/head compared to - $12.02/head for the self-fed on grass group. The total cost differences were not significantly different.

Effects of a Pre-Molt Calcium and Low-Energy Molt Program on Laying Hen Behavior During and Post-Molt
( 2009-01-01) Johnson, Anna ; Johnson, Anna ; Brant, George ; Stalder, Kenneth ; Stalder, Kenneth ; Dekkers, Jack ; Bregendahl, Kristjan

The objectives of this study were to compare the behavior of the laying hen kept in a cage system when offered a pre-molt calcium treatment and low-energy molt diets versus a traditional feed-withdrawal during induced molt. A total of 144 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens (85 wk of age), weighing 1.7 ± 0.2 kg, were used. Laying hens were housed 3 per cage (30.5 cm wide × 40.6 cm deep × 44.5 cm high), providing 413 cm 2 per hen. Six treatments were compared in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 2 Ca (coarse and fine) pre-molt treatments and 3 molt diets: feed withdrawal (FW), soybean hulls (SH), and wheat middlings (WM). The Ca pre-molt treatment was defined as the period when the hens received either a combination of fine (0.14 mm in diameter) and coarse (2.27 mm in diameter) CaCO3 or an all-fine CaCO3 mixed into a commercial diet for 1 wk. Both diets were formulated to contain 4.6% Ca, such that only the particle size of the CaCO3 differed between the 2 treatments. Hens had free access to feed and water and had a 24-h photoperiod. The 3 molt diets were applied (FW, SH, or WM) for a total of 28 d. The hens assigned to the FW diet were deprived of feed for 7 d with free access to water followed by 21 d of skip-a-day feeding restricted to 60 g of feed/hen per feeding day. The hens fed the WM and SH molt diets were given free access to feed and water during the entire 28 d molt period. Lighting was reduced to 8 h for the first 3 wk and was then increased to 12 h at the start of the last week of molt. Behavior was recorded by camera once before molt, twice during molt, and twice post-molt for 2 h in the morning and 2 h at night. The acquisition of 2 postures and 5 behaviors were obtained by 2 experienced observers who viewed the recordings using 24 h mode onto the Observer software using a 1 min scan sampling technique. Postures and behaviors were not different among treatments during the baseline period. The Ca pre-molt treatment had no carryover effect during or post-molt. The hens assigned to the FW molt diet spent more time in active postures and feeding and drinking behaviors during molt compared to hens fed the other 2 molt diets. Post-molt, all hens, regardless of molt diet, spent the same amount of time in each of these behaviors. The hens assigned to the FW molt diet spent more time preening during molt compared to post-molt, whereas the hens fed the WM and SH molt diets did not differ between the 2 periods (Table 1). In conclusion, these low-energy molt diets did not adversely affect the postures and behaviors of the laying hen and are therefore acceptable dietary alternatives to FW for inducing molt.

Corn Co-products; How Do They Affect the Behavior of Grow-Finish Swine?
( 2009-01-01) Johnson, Anna ; Sadler, Larry ; Stalder, Kenneth ; Stalder, Kenneth

Byproducts of the ethanol industry have been receiving a great deal of attention as potential ingredients for the swine diet. As byproducts they have the potential to affect air emissions particularly in regards to ammonia emissions. However, limited research has been done regarding diets created with different basal ingredients and their acceptability by the pig and the overall behavior impact they have on the pig. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to compare four different diets for the grow-finish pig in regards to its behavior and postures. Pigs were observed over their grow-finish phase of production, which was comprised of six different dietary formulation phases. Four treatments were compared: distillers dried grains plus solubles (DDGS), dehulled degermed corn (DDC), corn germ meal (CGM), and a traditional corn based diet (CORN). All diets were isocaloric and formulated to NRC recommendations (NRC, 1998). All pigs were recorded for 24 hours post dietary change (5 diet changes, total), and video was scored using a 15 minute scan sampling technique by two experienced observers. Pigs were observed for two behaviors (eating and drinking), two postures (active or inactive), or unknown (which was used when the posture or behavior of the pig could not be determined). Behaviors, postures and unknown for the grow-finisher pig throughout this trial were similar (P > 0.05) across the treatment groups. This is an important finding in so far as if new and different diets are implemented slowly, in this study specifically to aid in the reduction of ammonia and or sulfur outputs, then maintenance related behaviors will not be adversely affected in the grow-finish pig.

Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Turkey Breast Rolls Formulated with Antimicrobials Following E-Beam Irradiation
( 2009-01-01) Zhu, Meijun ; Ismail, Hesham ; Ahn, Dong ; Ahn, Dong ; Mendonca, Aubrey

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of antimicrobials on the survival and proliferation of L. monocytogenes in turkey breast rolls following electronbeam irradiation. Six antimicrobial additive treatments that include no preservatives (control), 0.1% potassium benzoate (PB), 2% sodium lactate (SL), 0.1% potassium benzoate plus 2% sodium lactate (PB+SL), 2% sodium lactate plus 0.1% sodium diacetate (SL+SDA), and 0.1% potassum benzoate, 2% sodium lactate and 0.1% sodium diacetate (PB+SL+SDA) were used. Sliced turkey breast rolls were artificially inoculated with ~10 6 CFU/cm 2 five-strain- L. monocytogenes cocktails, then vacuum-packaged and irradiated at 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5 kGy. D10 values for breast rolls with various additive treatments ranged from 0.56 to 0.58 kGy. Adding PB (0.1%) or SL (2%) in turkey rolls failed to prevent L. monocytogenes from growing during refrigerated storage. In turkey rolls added with two (PB+SL or SL+SDA) or three (PB+SL+SDA) antimicrobial combinations had 2 or 3 weeks of lag phases before L. monocytogenes growth, respectively. Irradiating turkey rolls, which were added with PB+SL or SL+SDA, at 1.0 kGy was effective in suppressing the growth of L. monocytogenes for about six weeks when stored at 4 °C. No growth of L. monocytogenes after irradiation occurred during 42 d storage for 2.0 kGy irradiated breast rolls formulated with 0.1%PB+2%SL, 2%SL+0.1%SDA or 0.1%PB+2%SL+ 0.1%SDA, and 1.0 kGy irradiated turkey breast with 0.1% PB + 2% SL + 0.1% SDA. Sensory panelists found that low-dose irradiation (1.0 kGy) had no effect on the sensory characteristics of RTE turkey breast rolls. Including SL+SDA had slightly negative effect for nonirradiated turkey breast rolls, but the sensory characteristics of 1.0 kGy irradiated turkey roll containing SL+SDA was not significantly different from the others receiving 1.0kGy irradiation. For microbial safety, PB+SL and SL+ SDA antimicrobial treatments combined with 1.0 kGy or 2.0 kGy irradiation are a promising technology.