Bulletin: Volume 2, Issue 21
The object of the following experiment is to determine the proper time to cut corn, so as to get the most profitable returns from the crop. The ear is the most valuable part of the corn crop for the western farmer, but there is great value in the stover. Hence, it is important to know whether we can obtain both these values in full, or whether obtaining full value of the one necessitates a decrease in the value of the other.
We selected twelve rows of Learning corn, of even quality and quantity, and long enough to make four shocks twelve hills square. These shock squares were laid off September 20th, and twenty stalks of even ripeness and size were selected and labeled on each square, that we might have samples that would represent the progress of ripening as nearly as possible.
The experiment reported in the following pages was undertaken on the suggestion of Prof. Wilson, Director of the Experiment Station, and carried on during the spring of 1893. Among the things studied during the investigation were the following:—1. The amount of the cheese constituents of the milk lost during the process of manufacture. 2. The relation between the amount of fat in the milk from which the cheese was made and the loss of fat during the process of manufacture and afterward. 3. The relation between the amount of fat in the milk and the amount of cheese made from it. 4. The comparative cost of production and the final market value of cheese made from milk containing different per cents of fat. 5. The ripening of cheese made from milk containing different percentages of fat. In addition the chemist to the station is making a study of the chemical changes that take place in the cheese made during this experiment.
The greater number of the cheese were made by Mr. G. L. McKay, a few being made by the writer and by Mr. F. A. Leighton. The analytical work was done under the direction of Prof. Patrick, chemist to the Experiment Station.
It is often desirable to know the loss occasioned by shrink age in handling and holding wool under varying conditions. With this end in view, as well as to make a comparison of different methods of storing wool, twenty-four fleeces, divided into four lots, were stored by three different methods and weighed periodically (generally monthly) for a year. Three lots of the wool were from high grade Shropshire sheep, clipped from between the 14th and 18th of April, 1892.
One lot, consisting of five fleeces was weighed, fleeces separately, and packed in a dry clean box just large enough to contain the wool conveniently and a close fitting cover nailed on.
The experiments here described are similar to those described in Bulletin No. 18, but differ from them in that the cream is here ripened for a shorter time.
Ia each trial a quantity of thoroughly mixed cream, fresh from the separator, was divided into two parts, one of which was churned within a few hours, while still sweet; the other the next day after ripening (at about 60° F.) for 17 to 21 hours. Salt and color were proportionately the same in all cases.
The clover growing area of the United States embraces the states of California and Tennessee and all the region lying north of the parallel of 36° north latitude, between the Rocky Mountains on the west and the Atlantic Ocean on the east. In this part of the United States Red Clover has become an important agricultural plant. Clover seed is shipped by the carload from place to place and even across the water.
It is a well known fact that clover seed is one of the most impure seeds on the market. The majority of our troublesome weeds are naturalized species, and not a few of them have come to us in impure clover seed. Constantly, farmers are complaining that the seeds of bad weeds have been sold to them in clover seed, and it is true that our seedsmen are largely responsible for the dissemination of Ox-eye Daisy, Plantain, Sorrel, Fox-tail, etc. So frequently has the attention of Experiment Station workers been called to the question of impure clover seed that some of the stations have made investigations and published the results in their bulletins. Work of this kind has been done at the North Carolina and Michigan stations. Their reports show that the subject is really one of great importance. Prof. McCarthy says,1 “Every bushel of uncleaned clover seed contains from three to five pounds of weed seeds.” Again he says,2 “Uncleaned Red Clover seed is probably the foulest seed on the market."