Iowa State University Veterinarian: Volume 19, Issue 1
On October 25, 1956, a one year old dark roan Shorthorn heifer was admitted to Stange Memorial Clinic at Iowa State College. The animal had been sick most of the summer with difficult respiration. When the heifer was turned out on pasture, her condition declined steadily. She appeared in fair condition upon arrival at the clinic, not showing any extreme emaciation. She was showing dyspnea, polypnea, anorexia, and constipation but did not seem to be extremely depressed. There was a mucous nasal discharge with some sloughing of muzzle epidermis. The skin seemed to lack normal pliability. In addition, the animal showed considerable mouth breathing. The respiratory rate was 52 per minute, the pulse rate 120 per minute, and the temperature 102.8 degrees. Upon exertion or exercise, the animal tired very easily and showed increased respiratory difficulty. Auscultation of the lungs revealed increased vesicular sounds over the entire lung on both the left and right sides.
Histoplasmosis, a disease affecting both man and animals, is an infection of the reticuloendothelial system and is caused by the fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. This disease, like many of the granulomatous and neoplastic diseases, usually presents itself as a chronic insidious disorder which fails to respond to all presently known types of therapy.
There are 27 verebrae between the head and the sacrum. With the exception of the first two, these vertebrae are separated from each other by intervertebral discs which are very closely connected to the vertebral bodies. Immediately dorsal to the vertebral bodies is the vertebral canal which houses the spinal cord and its investing membranes. Between the outermost of these membranes (dura mater) and the vertebral bodies, is the dorsal longitudinal ligament which starts at the odontoid process of the second cervical vertebrae and ends at the body of the first coccygeal vertebrae. As it passes over each intervertebral disc it expands laterally and blends with the disc tissue. In the thoracic region a series of ligaments, the conjugal ligaments, are interposed between the discs and the dorsal longitudinal ligament.
The etiology of ventral hernia is not completely agreed upon by all clinicians. Trauma of many sorts which causes weakening of the muscle fibers is commonly incriminated. Ventral hernia often occurs along the posterior border of the last rib which might indicate a possible hereditary or predisposing weakness of the attachment of the abdominal muscles at this point. Ventral was used to differentiate this hernia from umbilical and inguinal type hernias. It was also referred to as false because in this particular case the peritoneum was torn which is not the case in a true hernia.