Community and Regional Planning

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Internal mobility and water stresses in Sudan: implications for planning

2004-01-01 , Abdelbasir, Ibrahim , Community and Regional Planning

The distribution of agricultural projects and the accessibility to piped and boreholes water for domestic usages in Sudan fails to deal adequately and equally with the needs of people in the basic nine administrative divisions of the country. The inequality in these two socio-economic sources created an increased inter-provincial migration during the last three decades. This study highlights the influence of accessibility to water for agricultural and domestic uses in the internal migration in Sudan. The study investigated the economic, drought, and famine factors for the internal migration in Sudan as water-related. The context is investigated using what is known as the spearman's rank correlation and student's T-test to elucidate the positive or negative relationship between internal migration and accessibility to water for domestic and agricultural usages. The analysis finds a relationship between internal migration and accessibility to water for both agricultural and household uses. The picture that arises from the analysis is attributed to the unequal opportunities of accessibility to water for household uses, unequal number of irrigated acres allocated for an individual in each province, and to the varying levels of changes in mean annual precipitation between the different regions. The study ends with some suggestions as to how to improve upon the present situation by considering certain environmental and planning implications.

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Farmer response to land use policy in the Slovak Republic

2004-01-01 , Stoffel, Vanessa , Community and Regional Planning

The Slovak farmer has played a pivotal, though seldom-recognized role in the country's transition to a free market economy since 1991. Rural development opportunities as well as challenges evolved from land privatization. Petty-commodity farmers have managed the economic transition by relying on their agrarian roots to provide for themselves, their families and one another, while becoming agricultural entrepreneurs. The purpose of this study was to examine farmer response to land use policy in the Slovak Republic. Among the findings were: (a) the land restitution and privatization process provided opportunities for entrepreneurship; (b) the Slovak communal and utilitarian tradition is a challenge for both independent farmers and cooperative farm managers; (c) access and the ability to use land are a greater detriment to the land market than land atomization; and (d) unreliable cash flow challenges economic growth throughout the country and is exacerbated by the state. Multi-level production provides the greatest potential for economic opportunities and rural development. It is recommended that multi-level production consisting of small, petty-commodity farms (operations less than 1 ha in size), medium-sized farms (operations between 1 and 500 ha), as well as larger farms (operating on more than 500 ha) be encouraged. Land use policy should be evaluated and redesigned to eliminate the current inequitable bias towards cooperative farms and large-scale agricultural production.

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An evaluation of economic benefits of gentrification in St. Paul, Minnesota

2004-01-01 , Chuang, Hun-Zue , Community and Regional Planning

The purpose of this study is to answer the question of whether the process of gentrification provides economic benefits to the city. The study assumed that cities derive economic benefits from gentrification. First, the study classified St. Paul census tracts into gentrified and non-gentrified areas. Selection of indicators relied on the core definition of gentrification, that is, "class transformation." Therefore, education and occupation were selected as proxy indicators for gentrification. Then, housing values, employment, and family incomes were used as indicators of gentrification-derived benefits. By examining census data from 1970 to 1990 and using a t-test, the relationship between gentrification and median family incomes was confirmed. However, the data did not support a relationship between employment and gentrification. Only when employing the educational indicator in the first period of 1970-1980, did the result of the test indicate that a change in employment rate was associated with gentrification. For the relationship between median housing values and gentrification, the results were different for the two periods of 1970-1980 and 1980-1990. In the first period, the change in median housing values was significantly different for gentrified and non-gentrified tracts. This difference faded away when gentrification was defined by occupation and "both" indicators during 1980 and 1990 (the second period). In conclusion, the analysis documents that gentrification indeed has generated some economic benefits for the city of St. Paul.

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Impact of roadway design characteristics on pedestrian safety

2004-01-01 , Kukla, Christopher , Community and Regional Planning

Most vehicle/pedestrian crashes in the United States occur in urban areas, and over three-fourths of these crashes take place at non-intersection or "midblock" locations. There are a number of factors that may play a role in a vehicle/pedestrian crash, these include: the environment, motorist, pedestrian, and the roadway. Of these factors, roadway design and layout can be addressed on a consistent basis. Previous research on pedestrian safety has focused on a specific crash type or roadway improvement. This research will look at the combined impacts of multiple roadway design features. Determining if there is a relationship between multiple roadway design features and vehicle/pedestrian crashes will increase an understanding of how to make the road environment safer for pedestrians. This research measures the relationship between roadway design characteristics and vehicle/pedestrian crashes in Des Moines, Iowa, using a regression model. For this regression model, crash density was used as the criterion in order to normalize the number of crashes due to the study segments being of varying lengths. The regression model explains the relationship between the relevant predictors and the criterion. The resulting regression equation shows that both on-street parking and number of lanes are positively related to the vehicle/pedestrian crash density. These results help to explain why certain road segments in Des Moines have a higher number of vehicle/pedestrian crashes. They also show that more than one factor can play a role in this type of crash and that multiple factors should be taken into account when improving the pedestrian safety of a road segment.