Sappington, Thomas

Profile Picture
Email Address
Birth Date
Research Projects
Organizational Units
Organizational Unit
Job Title
Last Name
First Name

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
No Thumbnail Available

Sequences Encoding a Novel Toursvirus Identified from Southern and Northern Corn Rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

2022-02-15 , Sappington, Thomas , Sappington, Thomas W. , Coates, Brad S. , Bonning, Bryony C. , Entomology

Sequences derived from a novel toursvirus were identified from pooled genomic short read data from U.S. populations of southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber) and northern corn rootworm (NCR, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence). Most viral sequences were identified from the SCR genomic dataset. As proteins encoded by toursvirus sequences from SCR and NCR were almost identical, the contig sets from SCR and NCR were combined to generate 26 contigs. A total of 108,176 bp were assembled from these contigs, with 120 putative toursviral ORFs identified indicating that most of the viral genome had been recovered. These ORFs included all 40 genes that are common to members of the Ascoviridae. Two genes typically present in Ascoviridae (ATP binding cassette transport system permeases and Baculovirus repeated open reading frame), were not detected. There was evidence for transposon insertion in viral sequences at different sites in the two host species. Phylogenetic analyses based on a concatenated set of 45 translated protein sequences clustered toursviruses into a distinct clade. Based on the combined evidence, we propose taxonomic separation of toursviruses from Ascoviridae.

No Thumbnail Available

Up-regulation of apoptotic- and cell survival-related gene pathways following exposures of western corn rootworm to B. thuringiensis crystalline pesticidal proteins in transgenic maize roots

2021-09-04T00:00:00Z , Gassmann, Aaron , Sappington, Thomas , Gassmann, Aaron , Hibbard, Bruce E , Meinke, Lance J , Miller, Nicholas J , Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer , French, B Wade , Sappington, Thomas , Siegfried, Blair D , Guillemaud, Thomas , Entomology

Background: Resistance of pest insect species to insecticides, including B. thuringiensis (Bt) pesticidal proteins expressed by transgenic plants, is a threat to global food security. Despite the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, being a major pest of maize and having populations showing increasing levels of resistance to hybrids expressing Bt pesticidal proteins, the cell mechanisms leading to mortality are not fully understood. Results: Twenty unique RNA-seq libraries from the Bt susceptible D. v. virgifera inbred line Ped12, representing all growth stages and a range of different adult and larval exposures, were assembled into a reference transcriptome. Ten-day exposures of Ped12 larvae to transgenic Bt Cry3Bb1 and Gpp34/Tpp35Ab1 maize roots showed significant differential expression of 1055 and 1374 transcripts, respectively, compared to cohorts on non-Bt maize. Among these, 696 were differentially expressed in both Cry3Bb1 and Gpp34/Tpp35Ab1 maize exposures. Differentially expressed transcripts encoded protein domains putatively involved in detoxification, metabolism, binding, and transport, were, in part, shared among transcripts that changed significantly following exposures to the entomopathogens Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Metarhizium anisopliae. Differentially expressed transcripts in common between Bt and entomopathogen treatments encode proteins in general stress response pathways, including putative Bt binding receptors from the ATP binding cassette transporter superfamily. Putative caspases, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-response factors were identified among transcripts uniquely up-regulated following exposure to either Bt protein. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the up-regulation of genes involved in ER stress management and apoptotic progression may be important in determining cell fate following exposure of susceptible D. v. virgifera larvae to Bt maize roots. This study provides novel insights into insect response to Bt intoxication, and a possible framework for future investigations of resistance mechanisms.

No Thumbnail Available

Monarch Butterfly Ecology, Behavior, and Vulnerabilities in North Central United States Agricultural Landscapes

2022 , Grant, Tyler J. , Fisher, Kelsey E. , Krishnan, Niranjana , Mullins, Alexander N. , Hellmich, Richard , Sappington, Thomas , Adelman, James S. , Coats, Joel , Hartzler, Robert G. , Pleasants, John M. , Bradbury, Steven , Plant Pathology, Entomology and Microbiology , Agronomy , Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology , Natural Resource Ecology and Management , Pollinator Working Group

The North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is a candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Multiple factors are associated with the decline in the eastern population, including the loss of breeding and foraging habitat and pesticide use. Establishing habitat in agricultural landscapes of the North Central region of the United States is critical to increasing reproduction during the summer. We integrated spatially explicit modeling with empirical movement ecology and pesticide toxicology studies to simulate population outcomes for different habitat establishment scenarios. Because of their mobility, we conclude that breeding monarchs in the North Central states should be resilient to pesticide use and habitat fragmentation. Consequently, we predict that adult monarch recruitment can be enhanced even if new habitat is established near pesticide-treated crop fields. Our research has improved the understanding of monarch population dynamics at the landscape scale by examining the interactions among monarch movement ecology, habitat fragmentation, and pesticide use.

No Thumbnail Available

Population Development, Fecundity, and Flight of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Three Green Manure Crops: Implications For an Ecologically Based Pest Management Approach in China

2021-12-13 , Wu, Feifei , Zhang, Lei , Liu, Yueqiu , Cheng, Yunxia , Su, Jianya , Sappington, Thomas , Jiang, Xingfu , Entomology

The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), is an invasive pest of cereal crops that now inhabits southern China year-round. Cultivation of crops unsuitable as host plants has been an effective pest management strategy for some insect pests, but the effects of green manure crops on S. frugiperda have not been investigated. An age-stage two-sex life table and tethered flight performance of S. frugiperda reared on different green manure species were obtained, and a population dynamics model established. Developmental durations of stages, survival rates, and fecundities of S. frugiperda differed significantly depending on host plant. Larvae fed Astragalus sinicus L. did not complete development. Although some larvae fed Vicia villosa Roth and Vicia sativa L. completed development, generation time was significantly prolonged, egg production was halved, and net reproductive rate decreased to 31% and 3% of those reared on corn, respectively. Survival rates of early-instars fed V. villosa and V. sativa were significantly lower than those fed corn. Population dynamics projections over 90 d showed the number of generations of S. frugiperda fed on V. villosa and V. sativa was reduced compared to those reared on corn. Flight performance of S. frugiperda reared on V. villosa decreased significantly compared to corn. Our results show that the three green manure species are unsuitable host plants for S. frugiperda. Therefore, reduction of corn production in southern China through rotation with these green manure crops may be a feasible method of ecological management of this major corn pest in China.