Uterine Anomalies: Hidden Threats to Women's Reproductive Health

Date
2022-05
Authors
Nichols, Makenzie
Major Professor
Lyons, Michael
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West Greenlee, M. Heather
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Abstract
Congenital uterine anomalies can present in varying degrees of severity and 6.7% of females have some sort of anatomical anomaly. Females with uterine anomalies are more likely to have difficulties getting pregnant and 19% will experience one or more miscarriages. Current treatments for these anatomical anomalies include laparoscopic surgeries, such as a hysteroscopic myomectomy, which reduce the severity of the uterine anomaly. There is not currently a procedure to completely restore the uterus however, unification procedures, like a Strassman’s metroplasty, have been found to be beneficial in improving pregnancy outcome. This review further presents a public health proposal for early screening for anatomical uterine anomalies using 3D ultrasonography in maturing females at the time of their first pap smear. Bicornuate and septate uteri are of particular relevance because they are most commonly diagnosed and are easy to spot on a 3D ultrasound. Uterine anomalies can be accompanied with other uterine abnormalities such as endometriosis. Early screening for uterine anomalies can be beneficial to the overall health of women and takes an upstream approach to women’s health as a whole. The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness for uterine anomalies and propose a method for improving detection of such anomalies through early screening.
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