Leg weld fatigue cracks in anhydrous ammonia nurse tanks

dc.contributor.author Russell, Alan
dc.contributor.author Russell, Alan
dc.contributor.author Becker, Andrew
dc.contributor.author Chumbley, L. Scott
dc.contributor.author Enyart, Darrel
dc.contributor.author Chumbley, L. Scott
dc.contributor.department Materials Science and Engineering
dc.contributor.department Center for Nondestructive Evaluation
dc.date 2018-02-18T18:58:45.000
dc.date.accessioned 2020-06-30T06:07:40Z
dc.date.available 2020-06-30T06:07:40Z
dc.date.copyright Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2015
dc.date.issued 2015-01-01
dc.description.abstract <p>In an accident in southwest Iowa, USA in 2012, an anhydrous ammonia nurse tank vented its entire cargo of 5500 L (1500 gallons) of liquid ammonia to the atmosphere. Follow-up study of the failed tank revealed a through-crack along a weld used to connect the tank to its running gear. Side-angle ultrasound examinations were performed on 532 used anhydrous ammonia nurse tanks to measure the locations, sizes, and orientations of flaw indications. The tanks examined had manufacture dates ranging from 1952 to 2011. A total of 83 indications were found in or near the leg welds of 50 of these 532 tanks. Several factors suggest that these indications are fatigue cracks, not the stress corrosion cracks more commonly detected in nurse tanks. These findings suggest that roughly 9% of the 200,000 nurse tanks in the U.S. nurse tank fleet may contain leg-weld fatigue cracks. Nurse tanks are the only large, pressurized packages for hazardous cargo that do not contain manways; thus, their interior walls cannot be inspected for flaws with magnetic particle or fluorescent dye penetrant methods. Since the tank interior is inaccessible, side-angle ultrasound is the only detection method capable of detecting cracks in nurse tanks initiating at both interior and exterior tank surfaces. For this reason, the authors recommend that side-angle ultrasound be considered for use in periodic nurse tank inspections.</p>
dc.description.comments <p>This article is published as Russell, A. M., A. T. Becker, L. S. Chumbley, and D. A. Enyart. "Leg weld fatigue cracks in anhydrous ammonia nurse tanks." <em>Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis</em> 3 (2015): 73-79, doi:<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csefa.2015.03.002" target="_blank">10.1016/j.csefa.2015.03.002</a>. Posted with permission.</p>
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.identifier archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/mse_pubs/247/
dc.identifier.articleid 1254
dc.identifier.contextkey 10556030
dc.identifier.s3bucket isulib-bepress-aws-west
dc.identifier.submissionpath mse_pubs/247
dc.identifier.uri https://dr.lib.iastate.edu/handle/20.500.12876/55581
dc.language.iso en
dc.source.bitstream archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/mse_pubs/247/2015_Chumbley_LegWeld.pdf|||Fri Jan 14 22:54:31 UTC 2022
dc.source.uri 10.1016/j.csefa.2015.03.002
dc.subject.disciplines Materials Science and Engineering
dc.subject.disciplines Metallurgy
dc.subject.keywords Fatigue failure
dc.subject.keywords Non-destructive inspection
dc.subject.keywords Hazardous cargo transport
dc.subject.keywords Residual stress
dc.title Leg weld fatigue cracks in anhydrous ammonia nurse tanks
dc.type article
dc.type.genre article
dspace.entity.type Publication
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