Pen-Based Swine Oral Fluid Samples Contain Both Environmental and Pig-Derived Targets

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2024-02-29
Authors
Tarasiuk, Grzegorz
Remmenga, Marta D.
O’Hara, Kathleen C.
Talbert, Marian K.
Rotolo, Marisa L.
Zaabel, Pam
Zhang, Danyang
Zimmerman, Jeffrey J.
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Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
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Giménez-Lirola, Luis
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Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine
The mission of VDPAM is to educate current and future food animal veterinarians, population medicine scientists and stakeholders by increasing our understanding of issues that impact the health, productivity and well-being of food and fiber producing animals; developing innovative solutions for animal health and food safety; and providing the highest quality, most comprehensive clinical practice and diagnostic services. Our department is made up of highly trained specialists who span a wide range of veterinary disciplines and species interests. We have faculty of all ranks with expertise in diagnostics, medicine, surgery, pathology, microbiology, epidemiology, public health, and production medicine. Most have earned certification from specialty boards. Dozens of additional scientists and laboratory technicians support the research and service components of our department.
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Statistics

The Department of Statistics seeks to teach students in the theory and methodology of statistics and statistical analysis, preparing its students for entry-level work in business, industry, commerce, government, or academia.

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The Department of Statistics was formed in 1948, emerging from the functions performed at the Statistics Laboratory. Originally included in the College of Sciences and Humanities, in 1971 it became co-directed with the College of Agriculture.

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1948-present

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College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
Liberal Arts and Sciences is the largest college at Iowa State University with more than 7,400 students among 22 departments, one professional school and 14 cross disciplinary programs. Our faculty members teach approximately 60 percent of all student credit hours at Iowa State leading to 50 baccalaureate degrees, 29 PhD programs, 36 master's programs, and 14 graduate interdisciplinary degrees. Instruction in the liberal arts and sciences at Iowa State College was initiated in 1869, the first academic year of the University. However, the Division of Science and Philosophy was not established until 1898. Historical Names: Division of Science and Philosophy (1898–1899), Division of Science as Related to the Industries (1899–1914), Division of Industrial Science (1914–1939), Division of Science (1939–1959), College of Science and Humanities
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Abstract
Laboratory methods for detecting specific pathogens in oral fluids are widely reported, but there is little research on the oral fluid sampling process itself. In this study, a fluorescent tracer (diluted red food coloring) was used to test the transfer of a target directly from pigs or indirectly from the environment to pen-based oral fluid samples. Pens of ~30, ~60, and ~125 14-week-old pigs (32 pens/size) on commercial swine farms received one of two treatments: (1) pig exposure, i.e., ~3.5 mL of tracer solution sprayed into the mouth of 10% of the pigs in the pen; (2) environmental exposure, i.e., 20 mL of tracer solution was poured on the floor in the center of the pen. Oral fluids collected one day prior to treatment (baseline fluorescence control) and immediately after treatment were tested for fluorescence. Data were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, with Youden’s J statistic used to set a threshold. Pretreatment oral fluid samples with fluorescence responses above the ROC threshold were removed from further analysis (7 of 96 samples). Based on the ROC analyses, oral fluid samples from 78 of 89 pens (87.6%), contained red food coloring, including 43 of 47 (91.5%) pens receiving pig exposure and 35 of 42 (83.3%) pens receiving environmental exposure. Thus, oral fluid samples contain both pig-derived and environmental targets. This methodology provides a safe and quantifiable method to evaluate oral fluid sampling vis-à-vis pen behavior, pen size, sampling protocol, and target distribution in the pen.
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This article is published as Tarasiuk, Grzegorz, Marta D. Remmenga, Kathleen C. O’Hara, Marian K. Talbert, Marisa L. Rotolo, Pam Zaabel, Danyang Zhang, Luis G. Giménez-Lirola, and Jeffrey J. Zimmerman. "Pen-Based Swine Oral Fluid Samples Contain Both Environmental and Pig-Derived Targets." Animals 14, no. 5 (2024): 766. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14050766. Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.
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