A Protectionism Index for Non-Tariff Measures: An Application to Maximum Residue Levels
We propose aggregation indices of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) to quantify their protectionism relative to international standards of stringency. We apply the indices to national Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) regulations on pesticides and veterinary drugs affecting agricultural and food trade and using a science-based criteria embodied in Codex Alimentarius international standards. The approach links two streams of the NTM literature, one concerned with the aggregation of various NTMs into operational indices for econometric and modeling purposes, and the other attempting to evaluate the protectionism of NTMs. The data used in the application come from a large international dataset on veterinary and pesticide MRLs and CODEX MRL standards for a large set of countries.
This is a working paper of an article from Food Policy 45 (2014): 57, doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2013.12.005. Posted with permission.