Self-awareness theory and decision theory: a theoretical and empirical integration
The literatures on self-awareness theories and decision theories were reviewed separately and then integrated for the purposes of: (a) exploring possible applications of self-awareness to improve decision making; and (b) for extending research in the area of self-awareness to a decision making task. An experimental study tested the implications of the theoretical integration. In particular, the study investigated the relationship between self-awareness, decision accuracy, and knowledge of decision processes. One hundred-twenty participants estimated the grade point averages of 100 stimulus students based upon five factors (gender, high school percentile, Drake University test scores, college, and undergraduate major). Participants were randomly assigned to one of four self-awareness conditions (Never-Self-Aware, Self-Aware-During-Task-Only, Self-Aware-During-Self-Report-Only, or Always-Self-Aware), and one of two standard conditions (Superordinate or Subordinate). The effects of these variables on three categories of dependent measures (accuracy of decision, effort exerted on the task, and self-knowledge of decision strategy) were explored. In a series of ANOVAs, it was concluded that no relationship between the variables existed. Several possible interpretations of the findings are proposed, along with several suggestions for future research.