Different oil sources impacting brain lipid and transcriptome profiles of pigs

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da Silva, Bruna Pereira Martins
Fanalli, Simara Larissa
Gomes, Julia Dezen
de Almeida, Vivian Vezzoni
Fukumasu, Heidge
Moreira, Gabriel Costa Monteiro
Silva-Vignato, Bárbara
Afonso, Juliana
Koltes, James Eugene
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Elsevier B.V.
Reecy, James
Associate Vice President
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Animal Science

The Department of Animal Science originally concerned itself with teaching the selection, breeding, feeding and care of livestock. Today it continues this study of the symbiotic relationship between animals and humans, with practical focuses on agribusiness, science, and animal management.

The Department of Animal Husbandry was established in 1898. The name of the department was changed to the Department of Animal Science in 1962. The Department of Poultry Science was merged into the department in 1971.

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Lipids are fundamental to the structure and function of the brain, and their fatty acids (FA) composition is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which have protective effects and modulate gene transcription. For nutrigenomics studies, pigs (Sus scrofa) have been widely used as a biomedical model. Thus, the aimed to investigate whether different dietary oil sources modify the pig brain's lipid and transcriptomic profile. A 98-day study was performed using fifty-four male pigs. Treatments consisted of corn-soybean meal diets containing 3 % of soybean oil (SOY), canola oil (CO), or fish oil (FO). Total mRNA was extracted for sequencing. As a result, feeding diets with different oil sources affected the percentage of some FA. Palmitic acid showed a greater concentration in diets containing SOY with 27.037 %. Oleic acid and eicosenoic acid, showed a greater concentration in diets containing SOY, with 30.968 % and 2.096 %, respectively; and, total PUFA showed a better concentration in diets containing SOY and FO, with 11.685 % and 12.150 %, respectively. After quality control, considering the total reads obtained for the three groups, 94.87% were mapped against the reference genome SScrofa11.1. A comparison of gene expression between the groups of pigs was carried out by using the DESeq2 statistical package (R/Bioconductor). From SOY vs CO comparison, five differentially expressed genes (DEG, FDR < 0.05) were identified, from SOY vs FO forty-four DEG were verified, and from CO vs FO thirty-nine DEG were found. The functional enrichment analysis resulted in pathway maps (P < 0.05) related to apoptosis and cell proliferation, obesity and type 2 diabetes, neurophysiological process, and inflammation. The networks were associated with signal transduction, calcium transport, and oxidative stress. Overall, the results showed that diets with different oil sources could affect some brain tissue parameters and may help guide future research on the availability of dietary FA in the brain.
This article is published as da Silva, Bruna Pereira Martins, Simara Larissa Fanalli, Julia Dezen Gomes, Vivian Vezzoni de Almeida, Heidge Fukumasu, Gabriel Costa Monteiro Moreira, Bárbara Silva-Vignato et al. "Different oil sources impacting brain lipid and transcriptome profiles of pigs." Livestock Science 284 (2024): 105490. doi:10.1016/j.livsci.2024.105490. © 2024 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).
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