Utilization of soybean components in foods
On October 1999, the Food and Drug Administration approved the health claim of soy protein indicating that the food products high in soy protein may help lower coronary heart disease risk by consuming 25 grams of soy protein per day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol. Soybean has been traditionally a source of life in Japan, however, nowadays in Japan and the United States, a majority of portion of annual soybean production goes to animal feed but not for human consumption. Soybean is so beneficial for human consumption that more new applications to utilize soybeans are being studied and increased sales have resulted. The objectives of this study were (1) to utilize the entire soybean components to develop, and commercialize soybean-based food products and (2) to improve human health, soy marketability, and reduce environmental wastes by utilizing entire soybean components though the development of those soy-based food products. The first study achieved the objectives by using the commercial soybean cell powder. The new applications to utilize soy proteins, other than the bakery application, succeeded to develop soy-based tomato soups and pudding products that could meet 50% and 100% FDA soy protein health claim. Oxidative stability of the commercial soy protein powder is the next issue to improve the quality of these developed products. The second study used the commercial textured soy protein (TSP). The new formulation was easy to incorporate and produce a soy-based product. This study succeeded in the approach to utilize soy proteins by using TSP, soybean oil and non-meat derivative chicken-flavor. The developed product, a fried chicken-flavored TSP, had an enjoyable flavor and texture approved in the consumer test. The third study finalized the objectives of this study by incorporating okara, a byproduct from soymilk production into a snack chip increasing its fiber and protein contents. The majority of trained panelists preferred the okara-based snack product developed in this study with no beany-flavor problem over the Japanese commercial product standard. The new okara-based snack food would provide high nutritional profile and improve human health, soy marketability, and reduce environmental wastes.