Soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) response to lambda‐cyhalothrin varies with its virulence status to aphid‐resistant soybean
BACKGROUND: Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, is an invasive insect in North America, considered one of the most important pests of soybean. Their management relies heavily on foliar insecticides, but there is growing effort to expand these tools to include aphid-resistant varieties. We explored if the LC50 and LC25 of lambda-cyhalothrin varied between virulent (Resistance to Aphis glycines (Rag) soybeans) and avirulent (susceptible to Rag-genes soybeans) populations of soybean aphid with a leaf-dip bioassay. We also investigated the response to the LC25 of lambda-cyhalothrin on adults (F0) and their progeny (F1) for both avirulent and virulent soybean aphid.
RESULTS: The LC50 of the virulent aphid population was significantly higher compared with the LC50 of the avirulent population. The LC25 significantly reduced fecundity of the F0 generation of avirulent soybean aphid, but no significant effect was observed for virulent aphids. In addition, the LC25 significantly shortened the adult pre-oviposition period (APOP) and lengthened total pre-oviposition period (TPOP) of avirulent aphids, while the mean generation time (T) was significantly increased. For the virulent aphid, sublethal exposure significantly lengthened development time of first and third instars, TPOP, and adult longevity. In addition, all demographic parameters of virulent soybean aphid were significantly affected when they were exposed to the LC25 of lambda-cyhalothrin.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate lambda-cyhalothrin is less toxic to virulent aphids and exposure to the LC25 can trigger hormesis which may have implications for the long-term management of this pest with this insecticide as well as with aphid-resistant varieties of soybean.