Economic competencies needed and possessed by farmers in Hyuderabad District, Sind, Pakistan
The primary purpose of this study was to identify the economic competencies needed and possessed by farmers in Hyderabad District, Sind, Pakistan;The target population for this study consisted of 97 randomly selected farmers and 26 agriculture officers in Hyderabad District, Sind, Pakistan. Thirty-seven competency statements constituted the economic competence portion of the questionnaire. Sections on demographic variables and sources of information used by farmers were also included. A 1-5 point response scale was used to assess the degree of competence needed and the degree of competence possessed by the farmers included in the study. The data were collected through personal interviews with the respondents. In analyzing the data, descriptive statistical procedures were used;The findings show that farmers possess low economic competence, whereas they need high competence as identified by themselves and agriculture officers. As perceived by respondents, a significant difference at the 0.01 level existed between the level of competence needed and possessed by farmers for all economic competencies included in the study. There was no significant difference in the overall mean for the economic competencies needed and possessed as perceived by farmers when grouped by years of farming experience. When farmers were grouped by educational level, significant differences were observed for several competencies. Farmers with a high school education or more tended to rate competencies significantly higher than farmers with lower levels of education;The level needed and the level possessed for most of the economic competencies were significantly different at the 0.01 level when farmers were grouped by tenancy status. The owner-landlord group rated most competencies significantly higher than the owner-operator, tenant and owner-tenant groups;It was recommended that all economic competencies should be incorporated in the Baccalaureate and M.S. programs of Sind Agriculture University. The university should organize short courses for the farmers and emphasize the identified economic competences. In-service training should be provided for extension personnel to enable them to help farmers develop economic competencies needed.