Inherent acoustic nonlinearity in fiber reinforced composites

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Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore
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Vinay Dayal
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Aerospace Engineering

The Department of Aerospace Engineering seeks to instruct the design, analysis, testing, and operation of vehicles which operate in air, water, or space, including studies of aerodynamics, structure mechanics, propulsion, and the like.

The Department of Aerospace Engineering was organized as the Department of Aeronautical Engineering in 1942. Its name was changed to the Department of Aerospace Engineering in 1961. In 1990, the department absorbed the Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics and became the Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. In 2003 the name was changed back to the Department of Aerospace Engineering.

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  • Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics (1990-2003)

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Aerospace Engineering

Nonlinear elastic wave methods such as nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) and nonlinear wave modulation spectroscopy have been previously used to detect damages in several materials. It was observed that applying these techniques to composite materials becomes difficult due to the significant inherent baseline nonlinearity, i.e. nonlinearity in the undamaged state. Understanding the non-classical nonlinear nature of the composites plays a vital role in implementing nonlinear acoustic techniques for material characterization as well as qualitative nondestructive testing of composites. There are several factors which can influence the baseline nonlinear response in fiber reinforced composites, but this work is limited to the study of the effect of three factors, namely: fiber orientation, laminate sequence and type of fabric. Since fiber reinforced composites are orthotropic in nature, the baseline response variation with fiber orientation is very important. This work explores the nature of the inherent nonlinearity by performing nonlinear resonant spectroscopy (NRS) in intact or undamaged unidirectional carbon/epoxy samples with different fiber orientations with respect to major axis of the sample. Factors such as frequency shifts, modal damping ratio, and higher harmonics were analyzed to explore the non-classical nonlinear nature of these materials. Similarly, NRS tests were carried out on samples with different laminate sequence to observer the difference in nonlinear response. Similar comparisons were made between continuous fabric laminate and woven fabric laminate.

A nonlinear-viscoelastic forced vibration model based on geometric nonlinearities was developed to explain the observed responses. The Kelvin-Voigt model was used to model viscoelasticity along with geometric nonlinearity in the form of von Kármán strains. The classical nonlinear and damping sources were identified and compared between experiment and theory. A semi-analytical experimental approach was used to extract model parameters from experiment, and compare model predictions against experimental results. The classical and the non-classical nonlinear parameters were compared for different laminate sequences to complete the baseline study. Although the results presented here are for carbon/epoxy type of composites, the model and phenomenon can be extended for any fiber reinforced composite system.

Wed Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2014