Considerations for Dealing with Real-Time Communications in an Intelligent Team Tutoring System Experiment

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Sinatra, Anne
Winer, Eliot
Ostrander, Alec
Ouverson, Kaitlyn
Johnston, Joan
Sottilare, Robert
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Dorneich, Michael
Gilbert, Stephen
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Aerospace Engineering

The Department of Aerospace Engineering seeks to instruct the design, analysis, testing, and operation of vehicles which operate in air, water, or space, including studies of aerodynamics, structure mechanics, propulsion, and the like.

The Department of Aerospace Engineering was organized as the Department of Aeronautical Engineering in 1942. Its name was changed to the Department of Aerospace Engineering in 1961. In 1990, the department absorbed the Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics and became the Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. In 2003 the name was changed back to the Department of Aerospace Engineering.

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  • Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics (1990-2003)

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Virtual Reality Applications Center
At VRAC, our mission is clear: “To elevate the synergy between humans and complex interdisciplinary systems to unprecedented levels of performance”. Through our exceptional Human Computer Interaction (HCI) graduate program, we nurture the next generation of visionaries and leaders in the field, providing them with a comprehensive understanding of the intricate relationship between humans and technology. This empowers our students to create intuitive and transformative user experiences that bridge the gap between innovation and practical application.
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The Department of Psychology may prepare students with a liberal study, or for work in academia or professional education for law or health-services. Graduates will be able to apply the scientific method to human behavior and mental processes, as well as have ample knowledge of psychological theory and method.
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Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering
The Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering teaches the design, analysis, and improvement of the systems and processes in manufacturing, consulting, and service industries by application of the principles of engineering. The Department of General Engineering was formed in 1929. In 1956 its name changed to Department of Industrial Engineering. In 1989 its name changed to the Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering.
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In our paper we discuss an intelligent team tutoring system (ITTS) developed for a computer-based surveillance task experiment. In the experiment, two teammates worked together in a shared Virtual Battlespace 2 environment, and tutoring was provided by the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring. Feedback was triggered by the actions that the team members took, which were largely communications based. Since natural language processing software was not available in the tutor, we devised ways to measure and react to communications in real time. Team members both pushed keyboard buttons associated with the message they intended to send (which was processed by the computer and used to drive feedback) and were asked to verbally speak the same information to their teammates. In this paper, we discuss the reasoning behind the process used, challenges associated with using real-time communication in an ITTS, and initial analysis approaches that were done using the audio recordings of teammates' sessions. Emphasis is placed on how to reconcile real-time inputs to the computer system with audio recordings that occurred during the session and were later used for analysis. We discuss the challenges we encountered engaging with a real-time ITTS, which relies on communications between team members, and provide suggestions on addressing these challenges for future experiments.


This proceeding is published as Sinatra, Anne M., Stephen Gilbert, Michael Dorneich, Eliot Winer, Alec Ostrander, Kaitlyn Ouverson, Joan Johnston, and Robert Sottilare. "Considerations for dealing with real-time communications in an intelligent team tutoring system experiment." Proceedings of the Assessment and Intervention during Team Tutoring Workshop held in conjuction with the 19th Artificial Intelligence in Education Conference (AIED 2018). Pages 28-35.