The effect of athletic identity, occupational decision-making self-efficacy on academic motivation among revenue- and nonrevenue-status sport NCAA Division II student-athletes
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This study made inquiry into the extent to which psychological factors and individual characteristics affect academic motivation among revenue-status and nonrevenue-status sport NCAA Division II student-athletes. In order to examine the link between these variables and academic motivation, participants from five Midwest NCAA Division II universities were surveyed. Participants (n = 353) completed a demographic information sheet, a modified athletic identity measurement scale, occupational decision-making information-gathering and problem-solving self-efficacy scales, and an academic motivation scale. Statistical Package for Social Sciences IBM (SPSS) was used to find general demographics of the data sample as well as the relevant differences between student-athletes participating in this study, any significant relationships that existed between variables, and the extent to which those relevant variables predicted academic motivation. From the analyses it was found that 53.0% of the respondents were male and 43.9% were female, and that more than 90% were Caucasian. Fifty-seven percent of the responders were in their first or second year of college. Football and men’s basketball players (revenue-status sports) represented slightly more than 28% of the participants with the remaining 72% of participants being in other (nonrevenue-status) sports. Full-scholarship versus partial-scholarship status was found to have a significant difference with regard to academic motivation. Statistically significant differences also were found between student-athletes in revenue-status sports versus all other sports with regard to their athletic identity, academic motivation, and the belief they could sustain themselves financially in professional sports. No statistically significant differences were found between student-athletes in revenue-status sports versus all other sports with regard to occupational decision-making information-gathering and problem solving self-efficacy. Academic motivation, occupational decision-making information-gathering self-efficacy, and occupational decision-making problem-solving self-efficacy were found to have a significant negative relationship with athletic identity. Occupational decision-making information-gathering and problem-solving self-efficacy were found to have a significant positive relationship with academic motivation. The student-athlete’s year in school, athletic identity, occupational decision-making information-gathering and problem-solving self-efficacy, and revenue sport status participation were found to explain a significant amount of the variance in the value of academic motivation.