Introducing the Pi-CON Methodology to Overcome Usability Deficits during Remote Patient Monitoring

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Baumann, Steffen
Kim, Joseph Yun-Ming
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Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Stone, Richard
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Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering
The Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering teaches the design, analysis, and improvement of the systems and processes in manufacturing, consulting, and service industries by application of the principles of engineering. The Department of General Engineering was formed in 1929. In 1956 its name changed to Department of Industrial Engineering. In 1989 its name changed to the Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering.
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The adoption of telehealth has soared, and with that the acceptance of Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM) and virtual care. A review of the literature illustrates, however, that poor device usability can impact the generated data when using Patient-Generated Health Data (PGHD) devices, such as wearables or home use medical devices, when used outside a health facility. The Pi-CON methodology is introduced to overcome these challenges and guide the definition of user-friendly and intuitive devices in the future. Pi-CON stands for passive, continuous, and non-contact, and describes the ability to acquire health data, such as vital signs, continuously and passively with limited user interaction and without attaching any sensors to the patient. The paper highlights the advantages of Pi-CON by leveraging various sensors and techniques, such as radar, remote photoplethysmography, and infrared. It illustrates potential concerns and discusses future applications Pi-CON could be used for, including gait and fall monitoring by installing an omnipresent sensor based on the Pi-CON methodology. This would allow automatic data collection once a person is recognized, and could be extended with an integrated gateway so multiple cameras could be installed to enable data feeds to a cloud-based interface, allowing clinicians and family members to monitor patient health status remotely at any time.
This article is published as Baumann, Steffen, Richard Stone, and Joseph Yun-Ming Kim. "Introducing the Pi-CON Methodology to Overcome Usability Deficits during Remote Patient Monitoring." Sensors 24, no. 7 (2024): 2260. doi: © 2024 by the authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (