Developing and evaluating an approach to individualized, automated, process-focused feedback for university writing instruction

dc.contributor.advisor Chukharev, Evgeny M
dc.contributor.advisor Chapelle, Carol A
dc.contributor.advisor Cotos, Elena
dc.contributor.advisor Mackiewicz, Jo
dc.contributor.advisor Torrance, Mark Dux Speltz, Emily
dc.contributor.department English en_US 2024-01-25T20:15:05Z 2024-01-25T20:15:05Z 2023-12 2024-01-25T20:15:06Z
dc.description.abstract Writing is an essential skill for success in many academic and professional settings. Despite receiving individualized feedback on their writing, many students struggle with writing in postsecondary education. This dissertation addresses this gap by focusing on the writing process—the moment-by-moment actions taken during writing—rather than the final product alone. The first study employed thematic analysis of 300 session notes from a university writing center to understand the nature of feedback provided. This study contributes a novel characterization of feedback types and demonstrates the feasibility of using thematic analysis for session notes, paving the way for robust research methods in writing center contexts. The findings revealed that process-focused feedback is less prevalent than product-focused feedback in writing center sessions. These findings point to a mismatch between what occurs in writing center sessions and writing center expectations, which often center around improving students’ writing processes. The second study utilized cluster analysis of keystroke and eye-tracking data across multiple writing sessions to investigate the stability of writing processes. Participants were 30 native-English-speaking students. The findings showed that writing processes are relatively stable across sessions; stability was substantially higher than what was predicted by chance. This study enhances the understanding of the stability of writing processes and introduces a granular view of the writing process through cluster analysis, enriching both theoretical and methodological aspects of writing process research and providing implications for process-focused interventions which rely on information from diagnostic sessions to develop appropriate behavioral interventions. The third study employed design-based research for the development of “ProWrite,” an intelligent tutoring system utilizing keystroke and eye-tracking data to provide real-time feedback on the writing process. Five students engaged in three writing sessions using ProWrite. The study demonstrated the feasibility of ProWrite for providing real-time, process- and product-focused feedback, and there was evidence of short-term gains in writing quality for participants. This study shows the potential for developing an intelligent tutoring system for real-time, combined process- and product-focused feedback. This dissertation makes significant contributions in understanding the nature of feedback provided in writing centers, the stability of writing processes across tasks, and the potential of intelligent tutoring systems for real-time feedback on the writing process. This research holds implications for writing pedagogy, aiming to revolutionize the delivery of writing instruction and support in postsecondary education.
dc.format.mimetype PDF
dc.identifier.orcid 0000-0003-4795-949X
dc.language.iso en
dc.language.rfc3066 en
dc.subject.disciplines Linguistics en_US
dc.subject.keywords design-based research en_US
dc.subject.keywords eye tracking en_US
dc.subject.keywords keystroke logging en_US
dc.subject.keywords process-focused feedback en_US
dc.subject.keywords writing intervention en_US
dc.subject.keywords writing process en_US
dc.title Developing and evaluating an approach to individualized, automated, process-focused feedback for university writing instruction
dc.type article en_US
dc.type.genre dissertation en_US
dspace.entity.type Publication Linguistics en_US Iowa State University en_US dissertation $ Doctor of Philosophy en_US
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