Competitiveness and performance in the workforce: hierarchical factor analysis of managerial competitiveness, achievement motivation, and the big five personality dimensions
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Questionnaire data from 200 managers were analyzed. Hierarchical factor analysis found two general factors of competitiveness that were labeled Competitiveness and Self-Description of Competitiveness. Additionally, four specific factors were found: Affective Reaction to Competitiveness, Win, Beating Others in the Workplace, and Recognition of Performance. Analogous to prior findings with General Intelligence, this study suggests that the measurement of competitiveness will best be achieved through the measurement of many factors rather than items from only the general factors;The hierarchical factor analysis methodology used in this study was superior to the second-order analysis procedures typically performed in the literature because it allowed for the loadings of the items on both the first and second-order factors to be evaluated. The analysis was used to distinguish between the components of competitiveness and the components of achievement motivation. Results suggested that the components of competitiveness and achievement motivation have been confused in the literature, and a clarification of these two multidimensional sets of constructs is provided;Gender differences were found for all of the components of competitiveness but one, indicating that women score lower on most components of competitiveness than men. However, when gender and gender identity were regressed on the component scores, no main effects due to gender or interactions with gender occurred. Gender differences seemed to disappear when gender identity was added to the model, but because of multicollinearity, it was impossible to determine which of these two influences accounted for the overall significance in the regression models;Univariate and multivariate analyses of the components of competitiveness indicated that there were different relationships between these factors and the other predictors and performance criteria included in this study. Few significant correlations were found between the components of competitiveness and the criteria variables. Additionally, the results of the multiple regression analyses indicated that components of competitiveness did not show incremental validity over the other predictors used in the study. In general, components of competitiveness seem to be poorer predictors of success for restaurant managers than other variables.