Worklife Across the Lifespan
An extensive literature search across the spectrum of vocational psychology was conducted using the time frame of 1991-2008 and resulted in 47 quantitative reviews (i.e., meta-analyses). First, theories of vocational psychology are presented including John Holland's ( 1997) and Rene Dawis and Loyd Lofquist's ( 1984; Dawis, 2005) theory of work adjustment person-environment fit (P-E fit) models; Lent, Brown, and Hackett ( 1994) social cognitive career theory; the social learning theory of John Krumboltz ( 1990); Donald Super's career construction theory (Super, 1992); and L. S. Gottfredson's ( 1999) circumscription theory. Next, vocational outcomes of young people (the development of interests, educational and occupational aspirations, educational achievement, and career choice) and wage-earning adults (job search, job entry, job performance, job satisfaction, career success, and mental health outcomes) are reviewed. The last two major sections concern diverse groups (women and racially and ethnically diverse groups) and individual differences (cognitive ability, personality, and interests) as predictors of vocational outcomes.