Analysis of the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Process Gases within Municipal Biowaste Compost

dc.contributor.author Stegenta, Sylwia
dc.contributor.author Sobieraj, Karolina
dc.contributor.author Pilarski, Grzegorz
dc.contributor.author Koziel, Jacek
dc.contributor.author Koziel, Jacek
dc.contributor.author Białowiec, Andrzej
dc.contributor.department Food Science and Human Nutrition
dc.contributor.department Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering
dc.contributor.department Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
dc.contributor.department Toxicology
dc.date 2019-06-24T06:08:37.000
dc.date.accessioned 2020-06-29T22:36:15Z
dc.date.available 2020-06-29T22:36:15Z
dc.date.copyright Tue Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2019
dc.date.issued 2019-04-18
dc.description.abstract <p>Composting processes reduce the weight and volume of biowaste and produce products that can be used in agriculture (e.g., as fertilizer). Despite the benefits of composting, there are also problems such as odors and the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. This research aimed to investigate the phenomenon of process gas (CO, CO<sub>2</sub>, NO, O<sub>2</sub>) evolution within a large-scale municipal composter. The effects of turning frequency and pile location (outdoor vs. indoors) on process gas and temperature spatial and temporal evolution were studied in six piles (37‒81 tons of initial weight) over a six-month period. The biowaste consisted of green waste and municipal sewage sludge. The chemical composition and temperature of process gases within four cross sections with seven sampling locations were analyzed weekly for ~7–8 weeks (a total of 1375 cross sections). The aeration degree, temperature, CO, CO<sub>2,</sub> and NO concentration and their spatial and temporal distribution were analyzed. Final weight varied from 66% reduction to 7% weight gain. Only 8.2% of locations developed the desired chimney effect (utilizing natural buoyancy to facilitate passive aeration). Only 31.1% of locations reached thermophilic conditions (necessary to inactivate pathogens). Lower O<sub>2</sub> levels corresponded with elevated CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations. CO production increased in the initial composting phase. Winter piles were characterized by the lowest CO content. The most varied was the NO distribution in all conditions. The O<sub>2</sub> concentration was lowest in the central part of the pile, and aeration conditions were good regardless of the technological regime used. Turning once a week was sufficient overall. Based on the results, the most favorable recommended procedure is turning twice a week for the first two weeks, followed by weekly turning for the next two weeks. After that, turning can be stopped unless additional removal of moisture is needed. In this case, weekly turning should continue until the process is completed. The size of the pile should follow the surface-to-volume ratio: <2.5 and <2 for cooler ambient conditions.</p>
dc.description.comments <p>This article is published as Stegenta, Sylwia, Karolina Sobieraj, Grzegorz Pilarski, Jacek A. Koziel, and Andrzej Białowiec. "Analysis of the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Process Gases within Municipal Biowaste Compost." <em>Sustainability</em> 11, no. 8 (2019): 2340. DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su11082340" target="_blank">10.3390/su11082340</a>. Posted with permission.</p>
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.identifier archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/abe_eng_pubs/1020/
dc.identifier.articleid 2303
dc.identifier.contextkey 14366192
dc.identifier.s3bucket isulib-bepress-aws-west
dc.identifier.submissionpath abe_eng_pubs/1020
dc.identifier.uri https://dr.lib.iastate.edu/handle/20.500.12876/719
dc.language.iso en
dc.source.bitstream archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/abe_eng_pubs/1020/2019_KozielJacek_AnalysisSpatial_.pdf|||Fri Jan 14 18:16:12 UTC 2022
dc.source.uri 10.3390/su11082340
dc.subject.disciplines Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering
dc.subject.disciplines Environmental Engineering
dc.subject.disciplines Environmental Health
dc.subject.disciplines Sustainability
dc.subject.keywords biowaste
dc.subject.keywords sewage sludge
dc.subject.keywords waste management
dc.subject.keywords composting
dc.subject.keywords aeration
dc.subject.keywords carbon monoxide
dc.subject.keywords greenhouse gases
dc.subject.keywords temperature
dc.subject.keywords turned piles
dc.subject.keywords spatial distribution
dc.title Analysis of the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Process Gases within Municipal Biowaste Compost
dc.type article
dc.type.genre article
dspace.entity.type Publication
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relation.isOrgUnitOfPublication 8eb24241-0d92-4baf-ae75-08f716d30801
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