Aqueous tear assessment in dogs: Impact of cephalic conformation, inter‐test correlations, and test‐retest repeatability

dc.contributor.author Bolzani, Hellen
dc.contributor.author Sebbag, Lionel
dc.contributor.author Oriá, Arianne
dc.contributor.author Raposo, Ana Claudia
dc.contributor.author Sebbag, Lionel
dc.contributor.department Biomedical Sciences
dc.contributor.department Veterinary Clinical Sciences
dc.date 2020-04-03T16:21:23.000
dc.date.accessioned 2020-07-07T05:12:26Z
dc.date.available 2020-07-07T05:12:26Z
dc.date.copyright Wed Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2020
dc.date.embargo 2021-03-12
dc.date.issued 2020-03-12
dc.description.abstract <p><strong>Objective</strong> - To characterize diagnostic findings, test‐retest repeatability, and correlations among lacrimal tests in dogs of diverse cephalic conformations.</p> <p><strong>Animal studied</strong> - Fifty healthy dogs (25 brachycephalic, 25 nonbrachycephalic).</p> <p><strong>Procedures</strong> - A series of diagnostics were performed in each dog, allowing for a 10‐minute interval between tests and repeating each test 24 hours later under similar conditions: corneal tactile sensation (CTS), strip meniscometry test (SMT), phenol red thread test (PRTT), endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPPTT), Schirmer tear test‐1 without (STT‐1) or with nasolacrimal stimulation (NL‐STT1), and Schirmer tear test‐2 (STT‐2).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong> - Mean ± SD test values were lower in brachycephalic vs. nonbrachycephalic dogs (except for SMT; 7.4 ± 2.0 mm/5 seconds vs 7.3 ± 2.4 mm/5 seconds), with statistically significant differences noted for CTS (1.8 ± 0.5 cm vs 3.4 ± 0.8 cm), PRTT (37.2 ± 4.0 mm/15 seconds vs 41.1 ± 5.5 mm/15 seconds), STT‐1 (20.1 ± 3.4 mm/min vs 23.3 ± 5.7 mm/min), STT‐2 (13.0 ± 3.4 mm/min vs 16.9 ± 3.9 mm/min), and NL‐STT1 (23.2 ± 3.6 mm/min vs 27.1 ± 5.4 mm/min), and nonsignificant differences for EAPPTT (16.6 ± 2.7 mm/15 seconds vs 17.5 ± 2.9 mm/15 seconds). Nasolacrimal stimulation increased STT‐1 values by 18% on average. Correlations among tests were generally weak to moderate (r < .70) except for a strong correlation between STT‐1 and NL‐STT1 (r = .83, P < .001). Test reliability was good although test‐retest repeatability was generally poor to moderate, as depicted by low intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC ≤ 0.75) and wide 95% limits of agreement, except for CTS (ICC = 0.91).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong> - Corneal sensitivity and aqueous tear secretion are lower in brachycephalic dogs. A comprehensive assessment of the ocular surface requires the combination of several diagnostic tests. The nasolacrimal reflex may provide a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in dogs.</p>
dc.description.comments <p>This is the peer-reviewed version of the following article: Bolzanni, Hellen, Arianne P. Oriá, Ana Claudia S. Raposo, and Lionel Sebbag. "Aqueous tear assessment in dogs: Impact of cephalic conformation, inter‐test correlations, and test‐retest repeatability." <em>Veterinary Ophthalmology</em> (2020), which has been published in final form at DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/vop.12751" target="_blank">10.1111/vop.12751</a>. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving. Posted with permission.</p>
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.identifier archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/vcs_pubs/40/
dc.identifier.articleid 1039
dc.identifier.contextkey 17199258
dc.identifier.s3bucket isulib-bepress-aws-west
dc.identifier.submissionpath vcs_pubs/40
dc.identifier.uri https://dr.lib.iastate.edu/handle/20.500.12876/91920
dc.language.iso en
dc.source.bitstream archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/vcs_pubs/40/2020_SebbagLionel_AqueousTear.pdf|||Sat Jan 15 00:07:40 UTC 2022
dc.source.uri 10.1111/vop.12751
dc.subject.disciplines Ophthalmology
dc.subject.disciplines Small or Companion Animal Medicine
dc.subject.disciplines Veterinary Infectious Diseases
dc.subject.disciplines Veterinary Physiology
dc.subject.keywords Canine
dc.subject.keywords Corneal sensitivity
dc.subject.keywords Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
dc.subject.keywords Nasolacrimal reflex
dc.subject.keywords Tear production
dc.subject.keywords Reliability
dc.title Aqueous tear assessment in dogs: Impact of cephalic conformation, inter‐test correlations, and test‐retest repeatability
dc.type article
dc.type.genre article
dspace.entity.type Publication
relation.isAuthorOfPublication 3f7ce870-c6d0-4420-8cde-95e5d6290597
relation.isOrgUnitOfPublication 184db3f2-d93f-4571-8ad7-07c8a9e6a5c9
relation.isOrgUnitOfPublication 1ad68def-86ae-460b-8808-f1b1febafd0a
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