The Genetic and Molecular Basis of Plant Resistance to Pathogens
Plant pathogens have evolved numerous strategies to obtain nutritive materials from their host, and plants in turn have evolved the preformed physical and chemical barriers as well as sophisticated two-tiered immune system to combat pathogen attacks. Genetically, plant resistance to pathogens can be divided into qualitative and quantitative disease resistance, conditioned by major gene(s) and multiple genes with minor effects, respectively. Qualitative disease resistance has been mostly detected in plant defense against biotrophic pathogens, whereas quantitative disease resistance is involved in defense response to all plant pathogens, from biotrophs, hemibiotrophs to necrotrophs. Plant resistance is achieved through interception of pathogen-derived effectors and elicitation of defense response. In recent years, great progress has been made related to the molecular basis underlying host-pathogen interactions. In this review, we would like to provide an update on genetic and molecular aspects of plant resistance to pathogens.