Serological and Molecular Detection of Senecavirus A Associated with an Outbreak of Swine Idiopathic Vesicular Disease and Neonatal Mortality

Gimenez-Lirola, Luis
Rademacher, Christopher
Linhares, Daniel
Linhares, Daniel
Harmon, Karen
Rotolo, Marisa
Sun, Yaxuan
Baum, David
Zimmerman, Jeffrey
Pineyro, Pablo
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StatisticsVeterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine

We performed a longitudinal field study in a swine breeding herd that presented with an outbreak of vesicular disease (VD) that was associated with an increase in neonatal mortality. Initially, a USDA Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) investigation confirmed the presence of Senecavirus A (SVA) and ruled out the presence of exotic agents that produce vesicular lesions, e.g., foot-and-mouth disease virus and others. Subsequently, serum samples, tonsil swabs, and feces were collected from sows (n = 22) and their piglets (n = 33) beginning 1 week after the onset of the clinical outbreak and weekly for 6 weeks. The presence of SVA RNA was evaluated in all specimens collected by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) targeting a conserved region of the 5′ untranslated region (5′-UTR). The serological response (IgG) to SVA was evaluated by the weekly testing of sow and piglet serum samples on a SVA VP1 recombinant protein (rVP1) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The rVP1 ELISA detected seroconversion against SVA in clinically affected and non-clinically affected sows at early stages of the outbreak as well as maternal SVA antibodies in offspring. Overall, the absence of vesicles (gross lesions) in SVA-infected animals and the variability of RT-qPCR results among specimen type demonstrated that a diagnostic algorithm based on the combination of clinical observations, RT-qPCR in multiple diagnostic specimens, and serology are essential to ensure an accurate diagnosis of SVA.


This article is published as Gimenez-Lirola, Luis Gabriel, Chris Rademacher, Daniel Linhares, Karen Harmon, Marisa Rotolo, Yaxuan Sun, David H. Baum, Jeffrey Zimmerman, and Pablo Piñeyro. "Serological and molecular detection of Senecavirus A associated with an outbreak of swine idiopathic vesicular disease and neonatal mortality." Journal of clinical microbiology 54, no. 8 (2016): 2082-2089. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00710-16. Posted with permission.