Independent Domestication of Two Old World Cotton Species

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2016-01-01
Authors
Wendel, Jonathan
Renny-Byfield, Simon
Wendel, Jonathan
Page, Justin
Udall, Joshua
Sanders, William
Peterson, Daniel
Arick, Mark
Grover, Corrinne
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Abstract

Domesticated cotton species provide raw material for the majority of the world's textile industry. Two independent domestication events have been identified in allopolyploid cotton, one in Upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) and the other to Egyptian cotton ( Gossypium barbadense L.). However, two diploid cotton species, Gossypium arboreum L. and Gossypium herbaceum L., have been cultivated for several millennia, but their status as independent domesticates has long been in question. Using genome resequencing data, we estimated the global abundance of various repetitive DNAs. We demonstrate that, despite negligible divergence in genome size, the two domesticated diploid cotton species contain different, but compensatory, repeat content and have thus experienced cryptic alterations in repeat abundance despite equivalence in genome size. Evidence of independent origin is bolstered by estimates of divergence times based on molecular evolutionary analysis of f7,000 orthologous genes, for which synonymous substitution rates suggest that G. arboreum and G. herbaceum last shared a common ancestor approximately 0.4–2.5 Ma. These data are incompatible with a shared domestication history during the emergence of agriculture and lead to the conclusion that G. arboreum and G. herbaceum were each domesticated independently.

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<p>This article is published as Renny-Byfield, Simon, Justin T. Page, Joshua A. Udall, William S. Sanders, Daniel G. Peterson, Mark A. Arick, Corrinne E. Grover, and Jonathan F. Wendel. "Independent domestication of two Old World cotton species." Genome biology and evolution 8, no. 6 (2016): 1940-1947. <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1093" target="_blank">10.1093/gbe/evw129</a>. Posted with permission.</p>
Keywords
Gossypium, repetitive DNA, molecular evolution, genome size, crop plants
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