Changes in circulating lymphocytes and lymphoid tissue associated with vaccination of colostrum deprived calves
The objective of this study was to compare immunological responses and lymphoid depletion in young, colostrum deprived calves following administration of vaccines containing modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). A group of calves exposed to a typical virulence non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV-2 field strain (ncp exposed) was included to compare responses of calves receiving vaccine to responses generated against a field strain (mimicking a natural infection). A negative control group administered a placebo was used in all comparisons. All vaccines used in the study were administered per manufacturer recommendations while ncp BVDV exposed calves received 5 ml intranasally (2.5 ml/nare; 4.2 × 106 TCID50/ml) of the BVDV-2 field strain. Samples collected at each time point included nasal swabs for virus detection, blood samples for complete blood counts and detection of viremia, PBMCs for flow cytometric analysis, serum for virus neutralization titers, and thymus tissue at necropsy for evaluation of lymphoid depletion. A measurable neutralizing BVDV titer was observed for all treatment groups excluding the control animals, which remained negative during the study period. Virus shedding was only detected from the ncp vaccinated and ncp exposed calves. A decline from baseline was observed for peripheral lymphocyte and CD4+ cells for the groups receiving the adjuvanted cytopathic (cp) vaccine, the double deleted genetically modified (ddGM) vaccine, the ncp vaccine and ncp exposed calves, but not for the control group or groups receiving cp vaccines. Thymus depletion was observed for the ncp vaccine and ncp exposed calves and to a lesser extent for the ddGM vaccine calves. Collectively, these data suggest that the virus biotype, method of attenuation, presentation, and use of adjuvant will influence vaccine impacts on lymphoid tissues and the immune response. As such, multiple variables should be considered when determining costs and benefits of vaccination.
This is a manuscript of an article published as Falkenberg, Shollie M., Rohana P. Dassanayake, Mitchell V. Palmer, Simone Silveira, James A. Roth, Eric Gauger, Troy J. Kaiser, Christian Guidarini, John D. Neill, and Julia F. Ridpath. "Changes in circulating lymphocytes and lymphoid tissue associated with vaccination of colostrum deprived calves." Vaccine (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.09.046.