Evaluation of fish-meal free diets for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss
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Eight experimental diets were formulated for rainbow trout using agricultural byproducts as major ingredients. Each experimental diet contained varying amounts of corn grain, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed and one of the following: 200 g kg−1 peanut meal, 200 or 400 g kg−1 soybean meal (SBM), 390 g kg−1 low-allergen soy flour, 310 g kg−1 soy protein concentrate, 300 g kg−1 low-allergen soy protein concentrate or 200 g kg−1 SBM + 110 g kg−1 blood meal. One diet contained 200 g kg−1 SBM and canola oil as the main lipid source. The remaining diets contained 95 g kg−1 menhaden oil. Fish fed a commercial trout diet exhibited significantly greater weight gain (322%), and a lower feed conversion ratio (0.89) but significantly lower protein efficiency ratio (2.18) than fish fed the experimental diets. Within the experimental diets, fish fed the 400 g kg−1 soy flour diet and the 400 g kg−1 soybean meal diet had significantly higher weight gains (276% and 268%) and protein efficiency ratios (2.58 and 2.52), and lower feed conversion ratios (1.02 and 1.03) than fish fed other experimental diets. Fillet flavour varied between treatments. Most notable was the lower fishy flavour and higher chicken flavour of fish fed the diet that contained canola oil rather than menhaden oil. Microscopic evaluation of the liver and five sections of the gastrointestinal tract failed to demonstrate any differences between treatment groups. The ingredient costs of several experimental diets were lower than the estimated cost of a standard commercial trout diet. However, the superior feed conversion ratios of fish fed the control diet resulted in lower feed costs per unit of fish produced.
This article is from Aquaculture Nutrition 4 (1998): 255–262, doi:10.1046/j.1365-2095.1998.00077.x.