Assessment of changes in antibiotic use in grow-finish pigs after the introduction of PRRSV in a naïve farrow-to-finish system

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2023-12
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Machado, Isadora Fernanda
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C L Linhares, Daniel
S. Silva, Gustavo
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Karriker, Locke
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Responsible antibiotic usage (ABU) is crucial for both animal and human health and requires constant improvement of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). The presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a viral pathogen with immunosuppressive effects on swine, can intensify bacterial co-infections, alter antibiotic pharmacokinetics, and potentially lead to increased ABU. This study aimed to measure ABU changes in the grow-finish population associated with PRRSV infection and describe the antibiotic classes employed to manage clinical signs from a farrow-to-finish genetic multiplier system. Three PRRSV statuses (naïve, positive epidemic, and positive endemic) were established to classify the lots based on PRRSV circulation, with a total of 135,063 animals evaluated. The number of pig treatments per animal days at risk (PTDR) was calculated by administration route to quantify ABU across PRRSV status using negative binomial regression or non-parametric tests (P-value < 0.05). In the nursery phase, there was a statistically significant difference between PRRSV statuses for the overall PTDR for the injectable and water routes of administration, with an ABU increase of 3.79 and 2.51 times the naïve PTDR for positive epidemic and endemic status, respectively. For the finishing phase, there was a statistically significant difference between PRRSV statuses in the injectable PTDR, with an ABU increase of 2.74 and 2.28 times the naïve PTDR level for positive epidemic and endemic statuses, respectively. The most frequently injected antibiotic in the nursery phase was ampicillin, with 49% of total injections, followed by lincomycin (31%) and enrofloxacin (20%), and in the finishing phase, 72% of injections were lincomycin, followed by enrofloxacin (28%). The results highlight that the PRRSV outbreak in the source was associated with a grow-finish ABU increase, revealing the importance of preventing PRRSV infection to potentially decrease ABU and improve AMS within swine production systems.
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Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States, 2023