Characterization of Xanthomonas citri pv. glycines Population Genetics and Virulence in a National Survey of Bacterial Pustule Disease in Korea

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Kang, In-Jeong
Kim, Kyung Seok
Chung, Hyunjung
Heu, Sunggi
Hwang, Ingyu
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© The Korean Society of Plant Pathology 2021
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Natural Resource Ecology and ManagementPlant Pathology and Microbiology
Xanthomonas citri pv. glycines (Xcg) is a major pathogen of soybean (Glycine max) in South Korea, despite the availability of soybean varieties with some resistance. We conducted a nationwide survey of the incidence and severity of bacterial pustule caused by Xcg. The percentage of infected fields was 7% to 17% between 2015 and 2017. We characterized the diversity of a nationwide collection of 106 Xcg isolates based on avrBs3 banding patterns. The isolates fell into 11 groups, each represented by a type strain; only two of these were similar to isolates collected from 1999 to 2002. The diversity of Xcg strains increased and the dominant strains changed between 1999 and 2017, with three new type strains comprising 44% of the isolates examined in 2012 to 2017. Pathogenicity tests did not show evidence for a shift in the races or aggressiveness of Xcg strains. Korean soybean cultivars, including the widely-grown Daewon cultivar, were susceptible to the 11 new type strains. The cultivar CNS, which carries the rxp resistance gene, was susceptible to most type strains, including two representing 83% of the Korean Xcg strains. In contrast, Williams 82, which also carries rxp, showed resistance to at least five type strains. Collectively, these results suggest that Williams 82 has resistance loci in addition to rxp. The widespread distribution of Xcg, the high virulence of the current endemic strains, and the low resistance of most Korean soybean cultivars collectively favor widespread disease in Korea in years that are favorable to pustule development.
This article is published as Kang, In-Jeong, Kyung Seok Kim, Gwyn A. Beattie, Hyunjung Chung, Sunggi Heu, and Ingyu Hwang. "Characterization of Xanthomonas citri pv. glycines Population Genetics and Virulence in a National Survey of Bacterial Pustule Disease in Korea." The plant pathology journal 37, no. 6 (2021): 652-661. doi:10.5423/PPJ.FT.11.2021.0164. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
new race, pathogenicity, soybean, Xanthomonas citri pv. glycines