NDE in-process for metal parts fabricated using powder based additive manufacturing
Ensuring adequate quality for additive manufactured (AM) materials presents unique metrology challenges to the on-line process measurement and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) communities. AM parts now have complex forms that are not possible using subtractive manufacturing and there are moves for their use in safety criticality components. This paper briefly reviews the status, challenges and metrology opportunities throughout the AM process from powder to finished parts. The primary focus is on new acoustic signatures that have been demonstrated to correlate process parameters with on-line measurement for monitoring and characterization during the build. In-process, quantitative characterization and monitoring of material state is anticipated to be potentially transformational in advancing adoption of metal AM parts, including offering the potential for early part rejection, part condition guided process control or even potentially in-process repair. This approach will enable more effective deployment of quality assessment metrology into the layer-by-layer material build with designed morphology. In this proof-of-concept study acoustic-based process monitoring signals were collected during the Direct Energy Deposition (DED) AM process with different process conditions to investigate and determine if variations in process conditions can be discriminated. A novel application of signal processing tools is used for the identification and use of metrics based on temporal and spectral features in acoustic signals for the purpose of in-situ monitoring and characterization of conditions in an AM process. Results show that the features identified in signatures are correlated with the process conditions and can be used for classifying different states in the process.
This article is published as Bond, Leonard J., Lucas W. Koester, and Hossein Taheri. "NDE in-process for metal parts fabricated using powder based additive manufacturing." In Proceedings of SPIE 10973, Smart Structures and NDE for Energy Systems and Industry 4.0,1097302 (2019). DOI: 10.1117/12.2520611. Posted with permission.