Environmental contaminants in excrement of Iowa's nesting and wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

dc.contributor.author Dinsmore, Stephen
dc.contributor.author Reiter-Marolf, William
dc.contributor.author Dinsmore, Stephen
dc.contributor.author Blanchong, Julie
dc.contributor.author Blanchong, Julie
dc.contributor.department Natural Resource Ecology and Management
dc.date 2018-02-19T07:03:51.000
dc.date.accessioned 2020-06-30T06:12:44Z
dc.date.available 2020-06-30T06:12:44Z
dc.date.copyright Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2017
dc.date.issued 2017-01-01
dc.description.abstract <p>Bald Eagles (<em><em>Haliaeetus leucocephalus</em></em>) were rare only a few decades ago but have undergone a spectacular recovery range-wide. While their numbers have increased, there is concern about exposure of Bald Eagles to environmental contaminants. We collected excrement from nesting and wintering Bald Eagles in Iowa to examine their exposure to several contaminants and tested for differences as a function of space, time, and breeding status. We detected aluminum, copper, manganese, and zinc at levels above the quantitation limit (QL) in most excrement samples. These elements are all essential micronutrients normally found in living organisms. Arsenic and selenium are essential micronutrients for which fewer samples had levels above the QL. We also detected non-essential elements barium, cadmium, lead, and mercury in excrement samples, although only one sample had a cadmium level above the QL and only 26% of samples had lead levels above the QL. Geometric mean contaminant levels in excrement samples collected from nesting eagles during the spring were higher than for samples collected in the winter for aluminum, barium, copper, manganese, and zinc. The only difference we detected in contaminant levels in excrement samples was in manganese (higher for nest sites along the Mississippi River) and selenium (lower for nest sites along the Mississippi River) versus nest sites not associated with the Mississippi River. We also found that non-breeding eagles had higher levels of barium and manganese than nesting eagles. Our results can serve as a baseline for comparison with future studies investigating exposure of Bald Eagles to environmental contaminants.</p>
dc.description.comments <p>This article is published as Reiter-Marolf, William J., Stephen J. Dinsmore, and Julie A. Blanchong. "Environmental contaminants in excrement of Iowa's nesting and wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)." <em>The Wilson Journal of Ornithology</em> 129, no. 1 (2017): 148-154. Doi: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1676/1559-4491-129.1.148" target="_blank">10.1676/1559-4491-129.1.148</a> Posted with permission.</p>
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.identifier archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/nrem_pubs/256/
dc.identifier.articleid 1262
dc.identifier.contextkey 11334996
dc.identifier.s3bucket isulib-bepress-aws-west
dc.identifier.submissionpath nrem_pubs/256
dc.identifier.uri https://dr.lib.iastate.edu/handle/20.500.12876/56275
dc.language.iso en
dc.source.bitstream archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/nrem_pubs/256/0-GrantedEmail___Dinsmore_WildlifeJ.pdf|||Fri Jan 14 22:58:55 UTC 2022
dc.source.bitstream archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/nrem_pubs/256/2017_DinsmoreSJ_EnvironmentalContaminants.pdf|||Fri Jan 14 22:58:56 UTC 2022
dc.source.uri 10.1676/1559-4491-129.1.148
dc.subject.disciplines Environmental Health and Protection
dc.subject.disciplines Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment
dc.subject.disciplines Environmental Monitoring
dc.subject.disciplines Natural Resources Management and Policy
dc.subject.disciplines Poultry or Avian Science
dc.subject.disciplines Sustainability
dc.subject.disciplines Water Resource Management
dc.subject.keywords Bald Eagle
dc.subject.keywords contaminant
dc.subject.keywords excrement
dc.subject.keywords Haliaeetus leucocephalus
dc.subject.keywords Iowa
dc.subject.keywords metal
dc.title Environmental contaminants in excrement of Iowa's nesting and wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)
dc.type article
dc.type.genre article
dspace.entity.type Publication
relation.isAuthorOfPublication 93cc6656-8f88-4982-be9c-06bedefca35f
relation.isAuthorOfPublication afe7f6fa-e7ff-4838-b421-4232f2684a7d
relation.isOrgUnitOfPublication e87b7b9d-30ea-4978-9fb9-def61b4010ae
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