Modeling Single-Screw Extrusion Processing Parameters and Resulting Extrudate Properties of DDGS-Based Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Feeds

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Ayadi, Ferouz
Fallahi, Parisa
Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan
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Rosentrater, Kurt
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Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

Since 1905, the Department of Agricultural Engineering, now the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (ABE), has been a leader in providing engineering solutions to agricultural problems in the United States and the world. The department’s original mission was to mechanize agriculture. That mission has evolved to encompass a global view of the entire food production system–the wise management of natural resources in the production, processing, storage, handling, and use of food fiber and other biological products.

In 1905 Agricultural Engineering was recognized as a subdivision of the Department of Agronomy, and in 1907 it was recognized as a unique department. It was renamed the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering in 1990. The department merged with the Department of Industrial Education and Technology in 2004.

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  • Department of Agricultural Engineering (1907–1990)

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A single-screw laboratory extruder was used to conduct an L18 (22´ 36) Taguchi fractional factorial study of aquafeed processing. The ingredients were based on a formulation for nutritionally-balanced Nile tilapia diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean meal as the main protein sources, in addition to constant amounts of corn flour, whey, and fishmeal. The effects of three levels of DDGS (20, 30 and 40%), soybean meal (30, 40 and 50%), ingredient moisture content (20, 30 and 40% db), screw speed (100, 150 and 200 rpm), die dimension (L/D ratios of 5, 9 and 13), barrel temperature (80-100-100°C, 80-120-120°C and 80-140-140°C) and two levels of screw configuration (compression ratios of 2:1 and 3:1) on extrudate physical properties (moisture content, water activity, bulk density, unit density, expansion ratio, pellet durability index, water absorption and solubility indices, water stability, color) and extruder processing parameters (resulting temperatures, die pressure, extruder torque, mass flow rate, apparent viscosity, and specific mechanical energy) were determined. Data from raw materials, processing conditions, and extrudate properties were used to develop surface response curves and equations. However, predominantly low R2values (< 0.5) only permitted linear relationships between some independent parameters and response variables. Regarding main effects, die pressure significantly decreased with higher DDGS levels, moisture content, temperature, lower die L/D, and higher screw compression. Expansion ratio decreased significantly with higher moisture content and lower die L/D. Significant differences in color were caused by changes in DDGS levels and moisture content. In summary, DDGS, moisture content, die dimension, and extrusion conditions had the biggest impact on most of the extrudate physical properties and processing conditions. Different combinations of these independent factors can be used to achieve desired extrudate physical properties and processing conditions.


This article is from Journal of Food Research 2, no. 2 (2013): 11–28, doi:10.5539/jfr.v2n2p11.

Tue Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2013