Effects of the Noncoding Subgenomic RNA of Red Clover Necrotic Mosaic Virus in Virus Infection

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Kanodia, Pulkit
Miller, W. Allen
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© 2022 Kanodia and Miller
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Plant Pathology and Microbiology
The Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology and the Department of Entomology officially merged as of September 1, 2022. The new department is known as the Department of Plant Pathology, Entomology, and Microbiology (PPEM). The overall mission of the Department is to benefit society through research, teaching, and extension activities that improve pest management and prevent disease. Collectively, the Department consists of about 100 faculty, staff, and students who are engaged in research, teaching, and extension activities that are central to the mission of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. The Department possesses state-of-the-art research and teaching facilities in the Advanced Research and Teaching Building and in Science II. In addition, research and extension activities are performed off-campus at the Field Extension Education Laboratory, the Horticulture Station, the Agriculture Engineering/Agronomy Farm, and several Research and Demonstration Farms located around the state. Furthermore, the Department houses the Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic, the Iowa Soybean Research Center, the Insect Zoo, and BugGuide. Several USDA-ARS scientists are also affiliated with the Department.
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Plant Sciences Institute
The Plant Sciences Institute is dedicated to enhancing Iowa State University's international prominence in the plant sciences. Our research focus is to understand the effects of genotype and environment on phenotypes (traits) sufficiently well that we will be able to predict phenotype of a given genotype in a given environment (i.e., predictive phenomics)
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Plant Pathology and MicrobiologyPlant Sciences Institute
In recent years, a new class of viral noncoding subgenomic RNA (ncsgRNA) has been identified. This RNA is generated as a stable degradation product via an exoribonuclease-resistant RNA (xrRNA) structure, which blocks the progression of 5′→3′ exoribonuclease on viral RNAs in infected cells. Here, we assess the effects of the ncsgRNA of red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), called SR1f, in infected plants. We demonstrate the following: (i) the absence of SR1f reduces symptoms and decreases viral RNA accumulation in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana plants; (ii) SR1f has an essential function other than suppression of RNA silencing; and (iii) the cytoplasmic exoribonuclease involved in mRNA turnover, XRN4, is not required for SR1f production or virus infection. A comparative transcriptomic analysis in N. benthamiana infected with wild-type RCNMV or an SR1f-deficient mutant RCNMV revealed that wild-type RCNMV infection, which produces SR1f and much higher levels of virus, has a greater and more significant impact on cellular gene expression than the SR1f-deficient mutant. Upregulated pathways include plant hormone signaling, plant-pathogen interaction, MAPK signaling, and several metabolic pathways, while photosynthesis-related genes were downregulated. We compare this to host genes known to participate in infection by other tombusvirids. Viral reads revealed a 10- to 100-fold ratio of positive to negative strand, and the abundance of reads of both strands mapping to the 3′ region of RCNMV RNA1 support the premature transcription termination mechanism of synthesis for the coding sgRNA. These results provide a framework for future studies of the interactions and functions of noncoding RNAs of plant viruses.
This article is published as Kanodia, Pulkit, and W. Allen Miller. "Effects of the noncoding subgenomic RNA of red clover necrotic mosaic virus in virus infection." Journal of virology 96 (2022): e01815-21. doi:10.1128/jvi.01815-21. Posted with permission. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.