Gas-to-Particle Conversion Process between Ammonia, Acid Gases, and Fine Particles in the Atmosphere Koziel, Jacek Aneja, Viney Koziel, Jacek Baek, Bok-Haeng
dc.contributor.department Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering 2018-02-13T03:47:18.000 2020-06-29T22:41:43Z 2020-06-29T22:41:43Z Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2006 2012-12-08 2006-01-01
dc.description.abstract <p>Ammonia emissions are associated with many agricultural operations including animal and poultry operations, waste and wastewater treatment operations, and fertilizer and manure land applications. The fate of ammonia released to atmosphere is affected by interaction with other gases, aerosols, and fine particles. These interactions affect the gas-to-particle conversion. This process alters ammonia concentrations downwind from agricultural operations. However, experimental research and modeling of the gas-to-particle conversion processes in ammonia-rich environments is generally limited. This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art knowledge related to gas-to-particle conversion of ammonia.<br /><br />Ammonia and inorganic acid gases emitted from livestock and poultry operations and manure treatment, handling and application can affect air quality by formation of secondary particulate in the fine, PM2.5 range (a regulated air pollutant). The process of gas-to-particle conversion of relatively short-lived gaseous ammonia to more persistent fine particulate can affect local and regional air quality far away from the agricultural sources. Emissions of ammonia from livestock and poultry operations can potentially be detrimental to the air quality in non-compliance areas. Several models for the formation of fine PM from substrates such as ammonia are available and have been used for air quality modeling on a local and regional scale. These models can be adapted or modified to include emissions of ammonia and acid gases from livestock and poultry operations.<br /><br />More research is needed to improve the knowledge related to the role of ammonia gas-to-particle conversion. These needs include: (1) simultaneous field measurements of ammonia and acid gases at typical livestock and poultry sources, (2) development of emission factors for ammonia and acid gases, (3) incorporation of ammonia from agricultural sources to local and regional air quality models, and (4) modeling the fate of ammonia and acid gases emissions from livestock and poultry operations.</p>
dc.description.comments <p>Published in <a href="" target="_blank"><em>Animal Agriculture and the Environment: National Center for Manure and Animal Waste Management White Papers</em></a>. J. M. Rice, D. F. Caldwell, F. J. Humenik, eds. St. Joseph, MI: ASABE, 2006: 201–224.</p>
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.identifier archive/
dc.identifier.articleid 1070
dc.identifier.contextkey 3522649
dc.identifier.s3bucket isulib-bepress-aws-west
dc.identifier.submissionpath abe_eng_pubs/67
dc.language.iso en
dc.source.bitstream archive/|||Sat Jan 15 01:26:40 UTC 2022
dc.subject.disciplines Agriculture
dc.subject.disciplines Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering
dc.subject.keywords Animal agriculture
dc.subject.keywords Environment
dc.subject.keywords White papers
dc.subject.keywords CAFO
dc.subject.keywords Historical Perspective
dc.subject.keywords Atmospheric Particulate Matter
dc.subject.keywords Sources of Particulate Matter
dc.subject.keywords Formation of Secondary Particulate Matter
dc.subject.keywords Chemistry of Atmospheric Particulate Matter
dc.subject.keywords Acid Gases: Precursors
dc.subject.keywords The Gas-to-Particle Conversion Process
dc.subject.keywords Measurements of Particulate Matter
dc.subject.keywords Uncertainties in Particulate Matter Measurement
dc.subject.keywords Sampling of Ammonia
dc.subject.keywords Acid Gases
dc.subject.keywords and Fine Particles (PM2.5)
dc.subject.keywords Models for Gas-to-Particle Conversion
dc.subject.keywords Comparison Of EQUISOLV II and ISORROPIA
dc.subject.keywords Development and Evaluation of Air Quality Models
dc.subject.keywords Importance of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Agricultural Air Quality
dc.title Gas-to-Particle Conversion Process between Ammonia, Acid Gases, and Fine Particles in the Atmosphere
dc.type article
dc.type.genre report
dspace.entity.type Publication
relation.isAuthorOfPublication 76fc5589-51f8-4f3c-885c-e25d8037d641
relation.isOrgUnitOfPublication 8eb24241-0d92-4baf-ae75-08f716d30801
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