Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanorods Doped with Tetrahedral, High Spin Transition Metal Ions: Mn2+, Co2+, and Ni2+

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2016-03-22
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Thompson, Michelle
Blakeney, Kyle
Reichert, Malinda
Del Pilar-Albaladejo, Joselyn
White, Seth
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Cady, Sarah
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Vela, Javier
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Ames National Laboratory

Ames National Laboratory is a government-owned, contractor-operated national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), operated by and located on the campus of Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa.

For more than 70 years, the Ames National Laboratory has successfully partnered with Iowa State University, and is unique among the 17 DOE laboratories in that it is physically located on the campus of a major research university. Many of the scientists and administrators at the Laboratory also hold faculty positions at the University and the Laboratory has access to both undergraduate and graduate student talent.

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Because of its useful optoelectronic properties and the relative abundance of its elements, the quaternary semiconductor Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) has garnered considerable interest in recent years. In this work, we dope divalent, high spin transition metal ions (M2+ = Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+) into the tetrahedral Zn2+ sites of wurtzite CZTS nanorods. The resulting Cu2MxZn1–xSnS4 (CMTS) nanocrystals retain the hexagonal crystalline structure, elongated morphology, and broad visible light absorption profile of the undoped CZTS nanorods. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy help corroborate the composition and local ion environment of the doped nanocrystals. EPR shows that, similarly to MnxCd1–xSe, washing Cu2MnxZn1–xSnS4 nanocrystals with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) is an efficient way to remove excess Mn2+ ions from the particle surface. XPS and IR of as-isolated and thiol-washed samples show that, in contrast to binary chalcogenides, Cu2MnxZn1–xSnS4nanocrystals aggregate not through dichalcogenide bonds, but through excess metal ions cross-linking the sulfur-rich surfaces of neighboring particles. Our results may help in expanding the synthetic applicability of CZTS and CMTS materials beyond photovoltaics and into the fields of spintronics and magnetic data storage.

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Reprinted with permission from Chemistry of Materials 28 (2016): 1668, doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b04411. Copyright 2016 American Chemical Society.

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Fri Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2016
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