Hall Coefficient Measurement for Residual Stress Assessment in Precipitation Hardened IN718 Nickel-base Superalloy

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Velicheti, Dheeraj
Nagy, Peter
Hassan, Waled
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Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation
Center for Nondestructive Evaluation

Begun in 1973, the Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE) is the premier international NDE meeting designed to provide an interface between research and early engineering through the presentation of current ideas and results focused on facilitating a rapid transfer to engineering development.

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We investigated the feasibility of residual stress assessment based on Hall coefficient measurements in precipitation hardened IN718 nickel-base superalloy. As a first step, we studied the influence of microstructural variations on the magnetogalvanic properties of IN718 nickel-base superalloy. We found that the Hall coefficient of IN718 increases from ≈8.1×10-11 m3 /C in its fully annealed state of 15 HRC Rockwell hardness to ≈9.8×10-11 m3 /C in its fully hardened state of 45 HRC. Second, we studied the influence of cold work, i.e., plastic deformation at room temperature, and found that cold work had negligible effect on the Hall coefficient of fully annealed IN718, but significantly reduced it in the hardened state of the material. For example, measurements conducted on fully hardened IN718 specimens showed that the Hall coefficient decreased more or less linearly with cold work from its peak value of ≈9.8×10-11 m3 /C in its intact state to ≈9.3×10-11 m3 /C in its most deformed state of 22% plastic strain. Third, we studied the influence of applied stress, and found that elastic strain significantly increases the Hall coefficient of IN718 regardless of the state of hardening. The relative sensitivity of the Hall coefficient to elastic strain was measured as a unitless gauge factor F that is defined as the ratio of the relative change of the Hall coefficient ΔRH/RH divided by the axial strain ε = σ/E, where σ is the applied uniaxial stress and E is the Young’s modulus of the material, i.e., ΔRH = RH (1 + F ε). We determined that the galvanomagnetic gauge factor of IN718 is F ≈ 2.5-3 depending on the hardness level. Besides the fairly high value of the gauge factor, it is important that it is positive, which means that compressive stress in surface-treated components decreases the Hall coefficient in a similar way as plastic deformation does, therefore the unfortunate cancellation that occurs in fully hardened IN718 in the case of electric conductivity measurements will not happen in this case.