Herbicide Presistence in Soil

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1990-12-19
Authors
Loux, Mark
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Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference
Iowa State University Conferences and Symposia

The Iowa State University Integrated Crop Management Conference is Iowa's premier crop production education event. No other program in Iowa brings together the diverse range of topics, slate of expert presenters and results of the latest University research.

The ICM Conference offers workshops focusing on the latest in crop production technology. Experts from Iowa and surrounding states will provide research updates and results in soil fertility, soil and water management, crop production and pest management.

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Herbicides are applied directly to soils or plant foliage. Interaction of a herbicide with various living and non-living components of the environment ultimately determines how quickly it dissipates or degrades. Dissipation can be defined as the disappearance or loss of herbicide from the target site through a number of processes. Herbicide may move from the target site via processes such as runoff or leaching, or gradually degrade to undetectable or insignificant levels. Degradation, or alteration of the herbicide molecule by primarily chemical and biological processes, is thus one component of dissipation. Alternatively, we can distinguish between the transfer of herbicide molecules in soil due to processes such as runoff and leaching, and the transformation of the herbicide molecule, due to various degradation pathways. Degradation usually results in deactivation of the herbicide, while herbicide is not deactivated in transfer processes. Processes involved in herbicide dissipation include adsorption, degradation through chemical reaction, microbial degradation, photodecomposition, leaching, runoff, volatilization, and plant uptake.

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