Women Social Entrepreneurs in a Muslim Society: How to Manage Patriarchy and Spouses

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Ummiroh, Isnaini
Dhewanto, Wawan
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Emerald Publishing
Schwab, Andreas
Associate Professor
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Management and Entrepreneurship

The Department of Management and Entrepreneurship seeks to provide students with the knowledge of organizations and management functions within organizations. Graduates will be able to understand work-related behavior, competitive strategy and advantage, strategies of international business, and human-resource management practices.

The Department of Management was formed in 1984 in the College of Business Administration (later College of Business).

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1984 - present

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This study investigates how women social entrepreneurs in Indonesia use various behaviors to address challenges to their leadership authority created by socioreligious patriarchal norms in this Muslim society. An exploratory study of six Muslim women social entrepreneurs was conducted employing multi-round, semi-structured interviews in a contrast sample of three women who work with their husbands and three women who work without their husband’s involvement. The study identifies a variety of leadership behaviors that women entrepreneurs use to mitigate the constraining impact of strong patriarchal religious gender norms. Observations revealed surprisingly effective micro adjustments often based on relationship-specific private negotiations between the entrepreneurs and their husbands. Future research focused on the husbands' perspectives and behaviors, as well as extensions to other patriarchal religions and societies are encouraged. Recognition of the crucial role of spousal relationships suggests the need for more holistic approaches to support women social entrepreneurship, for example, by integrating husbands into related outreach programs. Contributes to emerging research on the crucial role of spousal relationships for women’s entrepreneurship and the impact of private micro arrangements between spouses to mitigate the constraining impact of Muslim gender norms. Muslim women entrepreneurs approved of the religious gender norms that constrained them, in contrast to the more “feminist” perspectives common in women entrepreneurs in more secular and Christianity-dominated Western societies.
This accepted article is published as Ummiroh, I; Schwab, A; Dhewanto, W,; Women Social Entrepreneurs in a Muslim Society: How to Manage Patriarchy and Spouses, Social Enterprise Journal, Early View, August 24 2022, doi: 10.1108/SEJ-11-2021-0092. Posted with permission.