Development of biosensors for POCT diagnosis and bio-manufacturing

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2023-05
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Qian, Jingjing
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Lu, Meng
Dong, Liang
Pandey, Santosh
Gomes, Carmen L
Sarkar, Anwesha
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Electrical and Computer Engineering
Abstract
This dissertation presents four chapters focusing on the development and application of innovative technologies in different fields. The first chapter is based on my master's project, and describes a robust optical fiber thermometer (OFT) system for continuous temperature measurement in extreme environments, such as furnaces used in steel production. The system consists of a nano-OFT probe that uses nanorods-coated sapphire fibers and a near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer to measure temperature with high accuracy. Chapters two to chapter four contain the main work based on the Ph.D. projects, focused on the development of biosensors for POCT diagnosis and bio-manufacturing. Chapter two reports an on-chip exosomal miRNA amplification and detection system that enables rapid analysis of exosomal miRNAs, which have great potential as biomarkers for disease diagnosis. The system employs an exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR) assay to quantitatively measure miRNAs extracted from exosomes. Chapter three presents a portable sensor system that combines thermolysis and paper-based nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the detection of target RNA molecules carried by viral and exosomal nanoparticles. The system achieves quantitative analysis of influenza A virus (IAV) RNA and exosome microRNA within one hour, making it a potential point-of-care test for in-field diagnosis of viral and bacterial infections. Chapter four introduces a dual-mode biosensor to characterize cell-free synthesized proteins for both expression level and protein function. The biosensor utilizes a nanopatterned metal thin film for label-free quantification of protein concentration and enzymatic activity in the plasmonic and electrochemical modes, respectively. Overall, these technologies demonstrate the potential of innovative sensor systems for various applications, including steel production, disease diagnosis, infection detection, and biomanufacturing.
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