Taxonomy of Teams, Team Tasks, and Tutors

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Bonner, Desmond
Burke, Shawn
Walton, Jamiahus
Ray, Colin
Winer, Eliot
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Dorneich, Michael
Gilbert, Stephen
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Aerospace Engineering

The Department of Aerospace Engineering seeks to instruct the design, analysis, testing, and operation of vehicles which operate in air, water, or space, including studies of aerodynamics, structure mechanics, propulsion, and the like.

The Department of Aerospace Engineering was organized as the Department of Aeronautical Engineering in 1942. Its name was changed to the Department of Aerospace Engineering in 1961. In 1990, the department absorbed the Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics and became the Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. In 2003 the name was changed back to the Department of Aerospace Engineering.

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  • Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics (1990-2003)

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Mechanical Engineering
The Department of Mechanical Engineering at Iowa State University is where innovation thrives and the impossible is made possible. This is where your passion for problem-solving and hands-on learning can make a real difference in our world. Whether you’re helping improve the environment, creating safer automobiles, or advancing medical technologies, and athletic performance, the Department of Mechanical Engineering gives you the tools and talent to blaze your own trail to an amazing career.
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Virtual Reality Applications Center
At VRAC, our mission is clear: “To elevate the synergy between humans and complex interdisciplinary systems to unprecedented levels of performance”. Through our exceptional Human Computer Interaction (HCI) graduate program, we nurture the next generation of visionaries and leaders in the field, providing them with a comprehensive understanding of the intricate relationship between humans and technology. This empowers our students to create intuitive and transformative user experiences that bridge the gap between innovation and practical application.
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Electrical and Computer Engineering

The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECpE) contains two focuses. The focus on Electrical Engineering teaches students in the fields of control systems, electromagnetics and non-destructive evaluation, microelectronics, electric power & energy systems, and the like. The Computer Engineering focus teaches in the fields of software systems, embedded systems, networking, information security, computer architecture, etc.

The Department of Electrical Engineering was formed in 1909 from the division of the Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. In 1985 its name changed to Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering. In 1995 it became the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

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  • Department of Electrical Engineering (1909-1985)
  • Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering (1985-1995)

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Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering
The Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering teaches the design, analysis, and improvement of the systems and processes in manufacturing, consulting, and service industries by application of the principles of engineering. The Department of General Engineering was formed in 1929. In 1956 its name changed to Department of Industrial Engineering. In 1989 its name changed to the Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering.
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While significant research has been done on teams and teaming (Salas, et al. 2004), less work has been done to characterize teams and team tasks in terms of the feasibility for them to benefit from intelligent tutoring. This theoretical paper begins to describe how the parameters of team structures addressed may affect the ways in which a team can accommodate external guidance. In addition, parameters of team tasks and resulting team tutors are also described. Examples of both team structures and team tasks are provided so that the resulting theoretical framework offers guidance for design decisions during the construction of intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) for teams and the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring’s (GIFT) supporting team architecture. ITSs have been successful at improving performance in a wide variety of domains ranging from academic topics such as math (e.g., Koedinger, Anderson, Hadley & Mark, 1997) to work-based tasks such as management of power plants (Faria, Silva, Vale & Marques, 2009). However, there have been few ITSs designed for educating or training teams (Sottilare, Holden, Brawner & Goldberg, 2011). Despite much research on teaming since the 1970s, team performance is widely variable and difficult to predict (Sims & Salas, 2007), and there is a significant need for team-based ITSs. A taxonomy of team tutoring is present-ed (see Figure 29 for top level key elements). This paper describes three taxonomies: teams, team tasks, and relevant tutoring factors. The taxonomies are based on reviewing the teaming literature with a particular focus on the characteristics of each that would influence the design of a team-based intelligent tutoring system. This work leverages the extensive literature review of teaming by Burke et al. (in progress) as well as recent work that has sought to identify those major factors which impact team performance Salas, Shuffler, Thayer, Bedwell & Lazzara (in press).

The taxonomies provided below are designed to help guide the design of software architecture to support team ITSs within GIFT. GIFT is a powerful software architecture designed to support a wide spectrum of intelligent tutoring. It supports the traditional components of most ITSs: the learner model, the domain model, the pedagogical model, and the learner interface, but does so generically (Sottilare, Brawner, Goldberg & Holden, 2012; Sottilare, Graesser, Hu & Holden, 2013). Thus, a multitude of learners might manipulate a wide range of user interfaces as they engage with various domains while being taught using 190 a variety of pedagogies. However, the GIFT architecture does not naturally support teams. Team compo-nents are necessary if GIFT is to support team tutoring, but they are not present in the current release. In their 2011 paper, Sottilare et al., the creators of GIFT, describe the challenges of creating team tutors in detail.


This is a proceeding from the Second Annual Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Users Symposium (2014): 189. Posted with permission.

Wed Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2014