Detection of porcine parainfuenza virus type-1 antibody in swine serum using whole-virus ELISA, indirect fuorescence antibody and virus neutralizing assays

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Welch, Michael
Krueger, Karen
Zhang, Jianqiang
Piñeyro, Pablo
Magtoto, Ronaldo
Strait, Erin
Mogler, Mark
Gauger, Phillip
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Springer Nature
Giménez-Lirola, Luis
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Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal MedicineStatistics
Background Porcine parainfluenza virus 1 (PPIV-1) is a respiratory virus in the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Respirovirus. It is closely related to bovine parainfluenza virus 3, human parainfluenza virus 1, and Sendai virus. Recent reports suggest PPIV-1 is widespread in swine herds in the United States and abroad. However, seroprevalence studies and the ability to evaluate cross neutralization between heterologous strains is not possible without validated antibody assays. This study describes the development of an indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) assay, a whole virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (wv-ELISA) and a serum virus neutralization (SVN) assay for the detection of PPIV-1 antibodies using 521 serum samples collected from three longitudinal studies and two different challenge strains in swine. Results The area under the curve (AUC) of the wv-ELISA (95% CI, 0.93–0.98) was significantly higher (p = 0.03) compared to the IFA (95% CI, 0.90–0.96). However, no significant difference was observed between the IFA and wv-ELISA when compared to the SVN (95% CI, 0.92–0.97). All three assays demonstrated relatively uniform results at a 99% true negative rate, with only 11 disagreements observed between the IFA, wv-ELISA and SVN. Conclusions All three serology assays detected PPIV-1 antibody in swine serum of known status that was collected from experimental studies. The SVN detected seroconversion earlier compared to the IFA and the wv-ELISA. Both the wv-ELISA and the SVN had similar diagnostic performance, while the IFA was not as sensitive as the wv-ELISA. All three assays are considered valid for routine diagnostic use. These assays will be important for future studies to screen seronegative swine for research, determine PPIV-1 seroprevalence, and to evaluate vaccine efficacy against PPIV-1 under experimental and field conditions.
This article is published as Welch, Michael, Karen Krueger, Jianqiang Zhang, Pablo Piñeyro, Ronaldo Magtoto, Chong Wang, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Erin Strait, Mark Mogler, and Phillip Gauger. "Detection of porcine parainfluenza virus type-1 antibody in swine serum using whole-virus ELISA, indirect fluorescence antibody and virus neutralizing assays." BMC Veterinary Research 18, no. 1 (2022): 1-11. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-022-03196-6. Copyright 2022 The Author(s). Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Posted with permission.