Electrical Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Schwann‐Cell‐Like Phenotypes Using Inkjet‐Printed Graphene Circuits
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Graphene-based materials (GBMs) have displayed tremendous promise for use as neuro-interfacial substrates as they enable favorable adhesion, growth, proliferation, spreading and migration of immobilized cells. Herein we report the first case of the differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) into Schwann Cell (SC) like phenotypes through the application of electrical stimuli from a graphene-based electrode. Electrical differentiation of MSCs into SC like phenotypes is carried out on a flexible, inkjet-printed graphene interdigitated electrode (IDE) circuit that is made highly conductive (sheet resistance < 1 kΩ/☐) via a post-print pulse-laser annealing process. MSCs immobilized on the graphene printed IDEs and electrically stimulated/treated (etMSCs) displayed significant enhanced cellular differentiation and paracrine activity above conventional chemical treatment strategies [~85% of the etMSCs differentiated into SCs like phenotypes with ~80 ng/mL of nerve growth factor (NGF) secretion vs. 75% and ~55 ng/mL for chemically treated MSCs (ctMSCs)]. These results help pave the way for in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration where the flexible This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. 3 graphene electrodes could conform to the injury site and provide intimate electrical simulation for nerve cell regrowth.
This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Das, Suprem R., Metin Uz, Shaowei Ding, Matthew T. Lentner, John A. Hondred, Allison A. Cargill, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Surya Mallapragada, and Jonathan C. Claussen. "Electrical differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into Schwann‐cell‐like phenotypes using inkjet‐printed graphene circuits." Advanced healthcare materials 6, no. 7 (2017): 1601087, which has been published in final form at doi: 10.1002/adhm.201601087. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.