Association of elevated palmitate with agronomic and seed traits of soybean

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Hayes, Mark
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The Department of Agronomy seeks to teach the study of the farm-field, its crops, and its science and management. It originally consisted of three sub-departments to do this: Soils, Farm-Crops, and Agricultural Engineering (which became its own department in 1907). Today, the department teaches crop sciences and breeding, soil sciences, meteorology, agroecology, and biotechnology.

The Department of Agronomy was formed in 1902. From 1917 to 1935 it was known as the Department of Farm Crops and Soils.

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  • Department of Farm Crops and Soils (1917–1935)

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Conventional soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars have approximately 11% palmitate in the seed oil. Increasing palmitate content may be beneficial for producing plastic fats at room temperature without the need for hydrogenation. Trans-fatty acids are produced from hydrogenation, which may be harmful to human health. The objective of the study was to compare soybean lines with 26%-palmitate content and lines with 40%-palmitate content for agronomic and seed traits. Three backcross populations were formed for this study. In each population, 27BC1F[Subscript 2:4] lines with 26%-palmitate and 27 lines with 40%-palmitate were tested at three locations in Iowa during 2000. The mean seed yield and content of oil in the 40%-palmitate lines were significantly less than that of the 26%-palmitate lines. None of the 40%-palmitate lines had a yield equal to any of the 26%-palmitate lines from the same population, and only one population had 40%-palmitate lines equal to 26%-palmitate lines for oil content. Protein content was significantly higher for the 40%-palmitate lines than the 26%-paimitate lines. The increase in protein did not compensate for the decrease in oil: therefore, the value of a metric ton of 40%-palmitate soybean was less than that of the 26%-palmitate type at current commodity prices for protein meal and oil. The 40%-palmitate lines had significantly lower mean plant population, lodging score, plant height, seed weight, oleate content, linoleate content, and stearate content than the 26%-palmitate lines in the three populations. Linolenate was significantly greater in the 40%-palmitate than the 26%-palmitate lines. The increase in palmitate content had adverse effects on agronomic and seed traits of soybean. Although there may be benefits of soybean oil with 40%-palmitate content, the negative associations with important agronomic and seed traits will make it difficult to develop cultivars that will be competitive with the conventional soybean.

Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2001