Nonconforming behaviors in entrepreneurship: Theoretical foundations, scale development, and empirical testing

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2023-08
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Valladares Terán, Carlos David
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Muller, Brandon A
Anderson, Marc
Herrmann, Pol
Parhankangas, Annaleena
Wo, Xuhui
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Altmetrics
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Management
Abstract
Nonconformity is at the core of entrepreneurship activity. The entrepreneur is often depicted as a disrupter of the status quo, introducing products or services that change the industry and society itself. Yet, no systematic research has been conducted on the relationship between nonconformity and entrepreneurship. In this dissertation, I present three papers aimed at advancing this line of inquiry. The first paper develops the theoretical background on nonconformity, borrowing from social psychology. Moreover, the paper identifies three constructs – rebels, mavericks, and contrarians – that represent different forms of nonconformity and theorizes how these behavioral orientations connect with different aspects of the entrepreneurial process. The second paper develops a measure of rebels, mavericks, and contrarians aimed at providing a survey instrument to advance empirical research on nonconformity in entrepreneurship. The paper successfully tests the scales’ reliability and validity within two sample studies. Finally, the third paper tests the new measure with a model of entrepreneurial intentions in college students. The results show that entrepreneurship is an attractive career option for people with nonconforming tendencies.
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