Nitrogen Fertilization and Cropping System Impacts on Soil Quality in Midwestern Mollisols Russell, Ann Laird, David Russell, Ann Mallarino, Antonio
dc.contributor.department Natural Resource Ecology and Management 2018-02-15T21:37:44.000 2020-06-30T06:13:39Z 2020-06-30T06:13:39Z 2015-03-03 2006-01-01
dc.description.abstract <p>High grain production of corn (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) can be maintained by adding inorganic N fertilizer, and also by using crop rotations that include alfalfa (<em>Medicago sativa</em> L.), but the relative impact of these management practices on soil quality is uncertain. We examined the effects on soil of N fertilization rate (0, 90, 180, 270 kg ha<sup>−1</sup>, corn phase only) in four cropping systems: CC, continuous corn; CS, corn–soybean [<em>Glycine max</em> (L.) Merr.]; CCOA, corn–corn–oat (<em>Avena sativa</em> L.)–alfalfa; and corn–oat–alfalfa–alfalfa (COAA). The 23- and 48-yr-old experimental sites, situated in northeast (Nashua) and north central (Kanawha) Iowa, were in a replicated split-plot design and managed with conventional tillage. At Nashua, we measured available N, potential net N mineralization and microbial biomass C (MBC) throughout the growing season; all were significantly higher in the CCOA system. At both sites, post-harvest N stocks, and soil organic C (SOC) concentrations were significantly higher in systems containing alfalfa. Grain yield was most strongly correlated with soil N properties. At Nashua, N fertilizer additions resulted in significantly lower soil pH (0- to 15-cm depth) and lower exchangeable Ca, Mg, and K and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in the CC and CCOA systems. In an undisturbed prairie reference site for Nashua, low available N, low pH, and high CEC suggested a strong influence of the vegetation on nutrient cycling. In terms of management of soil fertility, inclusion of alfalfa in the rotation differed fundamentally from addition of N fertilizer because high yield was maintained with fewer adverse effects on soil quality.</p>
dc.description.comments <p>This article is from <em>Soil Science Society of America Journal</em> 70 (2006): 249, doi:10.2136/sssaj2005.0058.</p>
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dc.identifier archive/
dc.identifier.articleid 1052
dc.identifier.contextkey 6766274
dc.identifier.s3bucket isulib-bepress-aws-west
dc.identifier.submissionpath nrem_pubs/48
dc.language.iso en
dc.source.bitstream archive/|||Sat Jan 15 00:26:56 UTC 2022
dc.source.uri 10.2136/sssaj2005.0058
dc.subject.disciplines Agronomy and Crop Sciences
dc.subject.disciplines Natural Resources Management and Policy
dc.subject.disciplines Soil Science
dc.subject.keywords CC
dc.subject.keywords continuous corn CCOA
dc.subject.keywords corn–corn–oats–alfalfa CEC
dc.subject.keywords cation exchange capacity COAA
dc.subject.keywords corn-oats-alfalfa-alfalfa CS
dc.subject.keywords corn-soy MBC
dc.subject.keywords microbial biomass C MSD
dc.subject.keywords minimum significant difference by Tukey's multiple comparison test POC
dc.subject.keywords particulate organic C SOC
dc.subject.keywords soil organic C ρb
dc.title Nitrogen Fertilization and Cropping System Impacts on Soil Quality in Midwestern Mollisols
dc.type article
dc.type.genre article
dspace.entity.type Publication
relation.isAuthorOfPublication fe48194d-87da-48ed-abec-5b0c213da52e
relation.isOrgUnitOfPublication e87b7b9d-30ea-4978-9fb9-def61b4010ae
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