Modality and Timing of Team Feedback: Implications for GIFT
This paper discusses considerations relevant to the design of team feedback in intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs). While team tutoring is a goal for the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT), further research must be done to explore the focus, modalities, and timing of feedback for teams. Alt-hough there have been a number of studies on feedback, there are a limited number of studies on feedback for teams. This theoretical paper leverages previous research on ITSs, training, individual feedback, and teamwork models to inform appropriate decisions about the most effective feedback mechanisms for teams. Finally, the implications of team feedback on the design of GIFT are discussed. Teams have the ability to achieve goals that are unobtainable by individuals alone. It is important to implement effective training for teams to support performance effectiveness. An important element of training is feedback. Feedback has the function of guiding or motivating individuals based on their past performance. The purpose of guiding feedback is to direct an individual to a desired behavior. The purpose of motivational feedback is to motivate the individual by mentioning future rewards (Ilgen, Fisher & Taylor, 1979). Although there have been a number of studies on feedback, there are a limited number of studies on feedback for teams. A common theme among these studies is determining whether feedback should be given at an individual or team level (Tindale, 1989). Some studies for teams suggest that team performance is influenced by feedback on an individual level (Berkowitz & Levy, 1956) and some studies suggest that groups outperform individuals when feedback is given to the entire team after each decision is made (Tindale, 1989). The purpose of the current paper is to characterize the range of modalities of feedback, timing of feedback, focus level of feedback, and who should receive feedback (i.e., individual vs. feedback) for teams to assist in the design of feedback for ITSs for teams. Finally, the implications of team feedback on the design of GIFT is discussed.