Solvent-Induced Shift of the Lowest Singlet π → π* Charge-Transfer Excited State of p-Nitroaniline in Water: An Application of the TDDFT/EFP1 Method
The combined time-dependent density functional theory effective fragment potential method (TDDFT/EFP1) is applied to a study of the solvent-induced shift of the lowest singlet π → π* charge-transfer excited state of p-nitroaniline (pNA) from the gas to the condensed phase in water. Molecular dynamics simulations of pNA with 150 EFP1 water molecules are used to model the condensed-phase and generate a simulated spectrum of the lowest singlet charge-transfer excitation. The TDDFT/EFP1 method successfully reproduces the experimental condensed-phase π → π* vertical excitation energy and solvent-induced red shift of pNA in water. The largest contribution to the red shift comes from Coulomb interactions, betweenpNA and water, and solute relaxation. The solvent shift contributions reflect the increase in zwitterionic character of pNA upon solvation.