Raman Imaging in Cell Membranes, Lipid-Rich Organelles, and Lipid Bilayers
Raman-based optical imaging is a promising analytical tool for noninvasive, label-free chemical imaging of lipid bilayers and cellular membranes. Imaging using spontaneous Raman scattering suffers from a low intensity that hinders its use in some cellular applications. However, developments in coherent Raman imaging, surface-enhanced Raman imaging, and tip-enhanced Raman imaging have enabled video-rate imaging, excellent detection limits, and nanometer spatial resolution, respectively. After a brief introduction to these commonly used Raman imaging techniques for cell membrane studies, this review discusses selected applications of these modalities for chemical imaging of membrane proteins and lipids. Finally, recent developments in chemical tags for Raman imaging and their applications in the analysis of selected cell membrane components are summarized. Ongoing developments toward improving the temporal and spatial resolution of Raman imaging and small-molecule tags with strong Raman scattering cross sections continue to expand the utility of Raman imaging for diverse cell membrane studies.
This is a manuscript of an article published as Syed, Aleem, and Emily A. Smith. "Raman imaging in cell membranes, lipid-rich organelles, and lipid bilayers." Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry 10 (2017): 271-291. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-anchem-061516-045317. Posted with permission from the Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, http://www.annualreviews.org.