Higher adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH Diet) is associated with lower greenhouse gases and land use from protein foods

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2023-06-14
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Kling, Nicole R.
Brellenthin, Angelique G.
Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine
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Frontiers Media S. A.
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Rosentrater, Kurt
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Lee, Duck-Chul
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Food Science and Human Nutrition

The Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition (FSHN) at Iowa State University is jointly administered by the Colleges of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Human Science. FSHN combines the study and practical application of food sciences and technology with human nutrition in preparation for a variety of fields including: the culinary sciences, dietetics, nutrition, food industries, and diet and exercise.

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The department was established in 1991 through the merging of the Department of Food Sciences and Technology (of the College of Agriculture), and the Department of Food and Nutrition (of the College of Family and Consumer Sciences).

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Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

Since 1905, the Department of Agricultural Engineering, now the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (ABE), has been a leader in providing engineering solutions to agricultural problems in the United States and the world. The department’s original mission was to mechanize agriculture. That mission has evolved to encompass a global view of the entire food production system–the wise management of natural resources in the production, processing, storage, handling, and use of food fiber and other biological products.

History
In 1905 Agricultural Engineering was recognized as a subdivision of the Department of Agronomy, and in 1907 it was recognized as a unique department. It was renamed the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering in 1990. The department merged with the Department of Industrial Education and Technology in 2004.

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1905–present

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  • Department of Agricultural Engineering (1907–1990)

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Kinesiology
The Department of Kinesiology seeks to provide an ample knowledge of physical activity and active living to students both within and outside of the program; by providing knowledge of the role of movement and physical activity throughout the lifespan, it seeks to improve the lives of all members of the community. Its options for students enrolled in the department include: Athletic Training; Community and Public Health; Exercise Sciences; Pre-Health Professions; and Physical Education Teacher Licensure. The Department of Physical Education was founded in 1974 from the merger of the Department of Physical Education for Men and the Department of Physical Education for Women. In 1981 its name changed to the Department of Physical Education and Leisure Studies. In 1993 its name changed to the Department of Health and Human Performance. In 2007 its name changed to the Department of Kinesiology. Dates of Existence: 1974-present. Historical Names: Department of Physical Education (1974-1981), Department of Physical Education and Leisure Studies (1981-1993), Department of Health and Human Performance (1993-2007). Related Units: College of Human Sciences (parent college), College of Education (parent college, 1974 - 2005), Department of Physical Education for Women (predecessor) Department of Physical Education for Men
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Introduction: The average American diet is high in red and processed meats which increases one's risk for chronic diseases and requires more land and water to produce and yields greater greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to other protein foods. Reduction of red and processed meat intake, such as seen with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet), could benefit human and environmental health. Objective: The objective of this study is to predict the environmental sustainability of the DASH diet by evaluating the GHG, land use, and water withdrawals from protein foods within the self-selected diets of people who were encouraged to follow the DASH diet. Methods: Dietary data was collected from 380 Midwesterners aged 35-70 years old with hypertension using the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour (ASA 24) Recall System. DASH diet adherence was measured using a nutrient-based DASH score. GHG, land use, and water withdrawals were obtained using Carnegie Mellon University's Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (eiolca.net) using the Purchaser model (cradle-to-consumer). Multiple linear regressions were used to view associations between individual DASH nutrient scores and environmental impacts of total, animal, and plant protein foods. Results: Diets that met DASH diet guidelines, as indicated by higher individual DASH nutrient scores, were associated with less GHG and land use from total and animal protein foods but more GHG and land use from plant-protein foods, with a few exceptions. The pattern was not clear for water withdrawals. Diets with the greatest adherence had around 25–50% lower GHG and land use from total protein foods than diets with the lowest adherence. Changes may be due to decreased consumption of total and animal protein foods, selection of animal protein foods with lower environmental impacts, and increased consumption of plant protein foods. Conclusion: Adhering to the DASH diet can promote the consumption of less environmentally demanding protein foods resulting in lower GHG and land use from protein foods. However, claims regarding the sustainability of the entire dietary pattern cannot be determined based off the current study. Regardless, it is evident that environmental impacts should be considered alongside health impacts when selecting, promoting, or recommending a dietary pattern.
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This article is published as Kling, Nicole R., Kurt A. Rosentrater, Duck-chul Lee, Angelique G. Brellenthin, and Lorraine Lanningham-Foster. "Higher adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH Diet) is associated with lower greenhouse gases and land use from protein foods." Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 7 (2023): 1145272. DOI: 10.3389/fsufs.2023.1145272. Copyright 2023 Kling, Rosentrater, Lee , Brellenthin and Lanningham-Foster. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Posted with permission.
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